General Guidelines For Food Fermentation and Lacto-Fermentation

Fermentation and lacto-fermentation as been around for a very long time mainly and it  means  preserving food over long periods of time when refrigeration was not available. Today many individuals are rediscovering these  methods of preserving food because the taste is amazing, but also because it’s a great way to consume probiotics.

Lacto-fermented foods are fermented by lactobacillus bacteria, which is a category of beneficial bacteria that feeds on sugar and that produces lactic acid as a byproduct. This is why lacto-fermented foods taste acidic.

Just about any vegetables and even fruits can be lacto-fermented, but fruits will need much less fermentation time as they contain much more sugar. You can play around and try all sorts of funky combinations to discover some amazing tastes. Spices and herbs are also often used extensively to give an even greater flavor to the final product. For example, sour pickles are often flavored with dill, garlic and a combination of pickling spices.

Examples of pickling spices are bay leaves, cinnamon sticks, whole cloves, whole peppercorns, coriander seeds and mustard seeds. A popular variation of Sauerkraut (lacto-fermented cabbage) is made with apples and Juniper berries.

General guidelines for lacto-fermentation

Even though the whole process might seem long and complex, fermenting food at home takes nothing but a few basic instruments and ingredients.

At its basis, most lacto-fermented foods are noting more than whole, chopped, sliced or grated vegetables placed in a brine of salt and water for a period of time at room temperature to let the beneficial bacteria develop.

* It is  important to keep in mind that the vegetables should stay submerged all along to prevent mold from forming. Lactobacillus bacteria is a facultative anaerobic category of bacteria, meaning that it doesn’t need oxygen for energy production.

If you decide to chop, slice or grate your vegetables, you should add salt as you place the cut vegetables in your chosen fermentation vessel and pound everything heavily with a potato masher to breakup the vegetables, release their juices and to eliminate any pocket of air that may form. When using whole vegetables, like with sour pickles, you’ll simply place them in your vessel and submerge them with a brine.

You’ll probably come across a lot of recipes calling for fresh whey as a starter for the ferment, but simply using salt gives out the same desired result.

What is Whey? Whey is only a way to bring more lactobacillus bacteria right at the beginning of the process, but that desired bacteria is already present on the surface of the vegetables you’re fermenting and will multiply fast enough when given the opportunity.

You don’t have to use much salt either and in fact you could even ferment food without salt, but using at least some salt prevents undesired bacteria to gain power over the lactobacillus. Using salt also helps the vegetables stay crunchy and helps draw water out of the vegetables. This extracted water can then act as the liquid for the brine. The quantity of salt to use is up to you, but 3 tablespoons per 5 pounds of vegetables is a good ratio to follow.

As an alternative to salt, you can also use a vegetable starter culture like one of those available online at a local health food store. It will ensure that only the desired bacteria ferments the food and they are not necessary at all when using salt.

The other very important element is the fermentation vessel. Choose a large ceramic or glass jar where you can fit a cap or plate on top to be able to press on the vegetables and keep them under the brine at all times. In any case press on the cap or plate by putting a rock or a jug of water on top. The salt will keep on extracting water from the vegetables several hours after you put them in the fermentation vessel, but you should verify that the liquid covers your vegetables the following day and add water if it’s not the case. Some mold can also form on the surface after some time in the form of a white film, but it’s usually not a problem and removing it as best as you can is good enough. It’s also a good idea to place the chosen fermentation pot or jar on a plate or thick towel as the ferment usually expands and spills can happen. *If there are any questions during this process, contact a local Health Food Store for additional assistance.

Some special ceramic pots and glass jars are designed especially for lacto-fermentation and to keep the vegetables submerged under the brine and can be purchased at a local Health Food store or on-line Health Food outlet.

The fermentation time will vary on a lot of factors: temperature, starter used, quantity of salt, nature of the vegetable or fruit, … The best way to go about it when trying original combinations is to taste it along the process and to go with the taste as the best indicator. When it tastes acidic enough – and to your liking – then it is ready to be enjoyed and placed in the refrigerator to stop the fermentation. Taste it after 3 days, then taste it 3 days later and so on. The finished product will keep for months when stored in the refrigerator.


Sauerkraut originated from Germany and consists of lacto-fermented cabbage. Cabbage is ONE of the most utilized lacto-fermented vegetable because the end result is highly favorable.

Ingredients :

  • 4 or 5 heads of read or green cabbage, shredded; 1/4 cup sea salt;


  • Place the shredded cabbage little by little in your fermentation jar, pounding them vigorously and sprinkling some of the sea salt as you go.
  • Make sure the mixture fills the jar up to 1 inch bellow the top (because of the expansion), adding more if needed, and that the extracted water covers the vegetables entirely. If not, create a brine of 2 tablespoons sea salt to 4 cups water and add it to  the cabbage.
  • Press the vegetables and keep them under the brine by placing a plate or a lid on top weighted down by a rock or a jug of water. Cover with a clean towel if needed to keep out fruit flies.
  • Place the fermentation jar in a warm spot in your kitchen and allow the Sauerkraut to ferment for 7 to 10 days.
  • Check on it from time to time to be sure that the brine covers the vegetables
  • A good way to know when it’s ready is to taste it during the fermentation process and move it to the refrigerator when you’re satisfied with the taste.
  • * * * If Mold should begin to develop on top of the solution, contact the local Health Food establishment for additional instructions.  Do not consume molded food * * *

**** All material on this website is provided for your information only and may not be construed as medical advice or instruction. No action or inaction should be taken based solely on the contents of this information; instead, readers should consult appropriate health professionals on any matter relating to their health and well-being.
The information and opinions expressed here are believed to be accurate, based on the best judgement available to the author, and readers who fail to consult with appropriate health authorities assume the risk of any injuries or health issues.
Food Handling: Please use great caution and sanitary practices when handling food products. Refer to your government’s or health department’s safe food handling guidelines. Wash your hands and surfaces thoroughly before and after handling any food product.
Cooking instructions and directions on this website are offered as guidelines only. Use your best judgment and proper discretion when preparing or consuming any food. We do not advise eating any eggs, meat or seafood that has not been properly handled or cooked. Eating something undercooked or raw is to be done at your own discretion.
We expressly disclaim responsibility for any adverse effect that may result from the use or application of the information contained on this website.