Category Archives: Infection Control

Researchers Conduct Study To Establish a Quantitative Correlation Between Applied Alcohol-Based Hand Rub ABHR Volume and Achieved Hand Coverage Utilizing an Innovate Quantitative Evaluation System

A large-scale investigation of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) volume: hand coverage correlations utilizing an innovative quantitative evaluation system

  • Constantinos Voniatis,
  • Száva Bánsághi,
  • Andrea Ferencz &
  • Tamás Haidegger

 

Abstract

Background

Current hand hygiene guidelines do not provide recommendations on a specific volume for the clinical hand rubbing procedure. According to recent studies volume should be adjusted in order to achieve complete coverage. However, hand size is a parameter that highly influences the hand coverage quality when using alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHR). The purpose of this study was to establish a quantitative correlation between applied ABHR volume and achieved hand coverage.

Method

ABHR based hand hygiene events were evaluated utilizing a digital health device, the Semmelweis hand hygiene system with respect to coverage achieved on the skin surface. Medical students and surgical residents (N = 356) were randomly selected and given predetermined ABHR volumes. Additionally, hand sizes were calculated using specialized software developed for this purpose. Drying time, ABHR volume awareness, as well spillage awareness were documented for each hand hygiene event.

Results

Hand coverage achieved during a hand hygiene event strongly depends on the applied ABHR volume. At a 1 ml dose, the uncovered hand area was approximately 7.10%, at 2 ml it decreased to 1.68%, and at 3 ml it further decreased to 1.02%. The achieved coverage is strongly correlated to hand size, nevertheless, a 3 ml applied volume proved sufficient for most hand hygiene events (84%). When applying a lower amount of ABHR (1.5 ml), even people with smaller hands failed to cover their entire hand surface. Furthermore, a 3 ml volume requires more than the guideline prescribed 20–30 s to dry. In addition, results suggest that drying time is not only affected by hand size but perhaps other factors may be involved as well (e.g., skin temperature and degree of hydration). ABHR volumes of 3.5 ml or more were inefficient, as the disinfectant spilled while the additional rubbing time did not improve hand coverage.

Conclusions

Hand sizes differ a lot among HCWs. After objectively measuring participants, the surface of the smallest hand was just over half compared to the largest hand (259 cm2 and 498 cm2, respectively). While a 3 ml ABHR volume is reasonable for medium-size hands, the need for an optimized volume of hand rub for each individual is critical, as it offers several advantages. Not only it can ensure adequate hand hygiene quality, but also prevent unnecessary costs. Bluntly increasing the volume also increases spillage and therefore waste of disinfectant in the case of smaller hands. In addition, adherence could potentially decrease due to the required longer drying time, therefore, adjusting the dosage according to hand size may also increase the overall hand hygiene compliance.

To read this Abstract in its entirety please click on the link below to be redirected. Thank you.

https://aricjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13756-021-00917-8/

Toothbrush Hygiene


Toothbrush hygiene:
A 2012 study from Manchester University in England found that a toothbrush may house more than 10 million bacteria. To keep your toothbrush as germ-free as possible, rinse and air-dry it after each use, and, if you choose to store it in the bathroom, use a toothbrush cover, and close the toilet lid before you flush. It is also recommended not to store the toothbrush directly next to the toilet.

 

 

Researchers Find Infection Prevention Cleaning Compliance to Be More Effective In Reducing the Spread of C. diff.

Small changes in daily hygiene are more effective than visitor contact precautions in preventing C. difficile (C. diff.) among elderly patients in long-term care centers, according to a new study published in JAMA Network Open.

Researchers at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin, studied infection control regimens to deter C. diff transmission in a 200-bed acute care adult hospital. Visitor contract precautions (VCPs) are a common regimen, in which visitors don gowns and gloves when entering the room of a patient with a C. diff infection (CDI).

Implementing VCPs requires considerable worker and personal protective equipment (PPE) resources. In addition, VCPs are often associated with adverse effects for patients, as they limit the amount of visitors patients may see and often lead to increased delirium and depression.

After researchers accounted for factors such as patient susceptibility, behavior, and transmission, they found VCPs resulted in minimal change, contributing to a 1% or less decrease in infection rate.

Investigators seeking a better method of containing CDI looked at the effects of stressing health care worker’s hand hygiene, daily cleaning of patient rooms and common areas, as well as thorough terminal cleaning of rooms between patients. They determined that slightly increasing worker hand hygiene and environmental cleaning compliance— by no more than 2%— were associated with larger infection decreases.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source:  https://www.cmmonline.com/news/learn-how-the-cleaning-industry-can-help-with-updated-cdc-travel-guidelines

C. diff. Spores and More Live Broadcast Enters Season VI

Welcome to Season VI on 

C. diff. Spores and More

Live Broadcast, sponsored

by Clorox Healthcare.

 

With over 260 archived episodes ~ Listen At Your Leisure


It’s a new year with an entirely new line up of guests eager to share their C. difficile research, infection prevention methods, clinical trials in progress, the updates in the C. diff. community, and much more.

 

 

 

 

In March the post-Patient and Family Symposium presentations will broadcast, in the event you weren’t able to attend the live-online event hosted on January 15th. The first annual Patient and Family Symposium was sponsored by Seres Therapeutics

Do you have a specific topic of interest or would like to learn more about a specific product or procedure?  Send an email to info@cdifffoundation.org and share your suggestions and interests.

“None of us can do this alone ~ All of us can do this together.”

Join us every Tuesday at 1:00 p.m. EST for the Live Broadcast  www.cdiffradio.com

 

Cleveland Clinic Shares 9 Places Germs Are Lurking In the Kitchen

Did you know that about 9% of foodborne illness outbreaks occur in the home and it’s almost impossible to tell where the bacteria may live with the naked eye?

Research has identified the top kitchen items that are commonly cross-contaminated during the preparation of a meal (yuck!). Infectious disease specialist Susan Rehm, MD, outlines these top kitchen contaminators and how to make sure you don’t get sick.

1. Cloth towel

Like sponges, cloth towels were the most frequently contaminated article in the kitchen. How many times have you used a towel to wipe off the counter after cooking, washed your hands, and then wiped your clean hands with that same towel? It happens more often than you think.

“One of the best ways to prevent cross-contamination in the kitchen is to use paper towels,” says Dr. Rehm.

Research also shows that salmonella grows on cloths stored overnight, even after they were washed and rinsed in the sink. To minimize the risk of contamination, either strictly use paper towels or use a new, clean cloth for each surface in your kitchen. Be sure to wash your towels with bleach or other disinfectants before using them again.

2. Smartphone or tablet

Just like if you take your phone to the bathroom with you, anything you touch in the kitchen following contact with raw meat can become contaminated. That includes your smartphone or tablet you use to follow a recipe or answer a call.

“Either don’t use it or clean it as frequently as you would wash your hands,” she says.

Consider covering your device with clear plastic or printing out the recipe so you don’t have to touch your device. If you don’t want to print it out, make sure to disinfect your phone afterward.

To disinfect your phone, Dr. Rehm recommends following these steps:

  1. Take the case off and turn your phone or tablet off completely.
  2. Mist a gentle cleaning cloth with 70% isopropyl alcohol.
  3. Gently wipe down each corner of your phone or tablet.
  4. Wipe down your case and any phone accessories with the same solution.
  5. Let dry completely before turning your device on.

Never use harsh chemicals on your devices. Double-check with your phone brand on the proper way to disinfect their products so you don’t end up ruining your expensive tech.

3. Sink faucet, refrigerator, oven handle, trash container

When was the last time you disinfected your sink faucet, refrigerator, oven, or trash can?

“During food prep, be aware that there are bacteria in food, and touching it can spread it to other surfaces and potentially cause illness,” says Dr. Rehm. “Common bacteria found in the kitchen include E.coli, salmonella, shigella, campylobacter, norovirus, and hepatitis A.”

E.coli can survive for hours on a surface, salmonella can survive for about four hours and hepatitis A can survive for months. If those numbers make you nervous, lessen your chances of getting those germs by disinfecting each surface that bacteria could have come into contact with. And yes, that means wiping down or spraying each surface in your kitchen that you worked at just to be sure.

4. Cooking utensils

With so many different kitchen utensils, it’s important to be aware of how you use them, too.

“When you use tongs or a fork to put raw poultry on the grill, you should wash it immediately afterward if you plan to use the same tools to serve the meal,” says Dr. Rehm.

Sanitize your utensils by hand-washing in hot, soapy water and sanitizing solution. Make sure to air-dry them completely before putting them away into the cupboard.

5. Hands

Believe it or not, it’s common for people to not wash their hands with the frequency or quality needed to reduce bacterial contamination.

“When preparing food, it’s wise to wash hands beforehand, frequently throughout, and afterward,” says Dr. Rehm.

Each time you handle raw meat, wash your hands. Lather your hands with soap (don’t forget your nails, between your fingers and the back of your hands!) Scrub your hands for at least 20 seconds, and then use a paper towel to dry them and turn off the water faucets and don’t reuse it. Throw the used paper towel away immediately after use.

6. Fruit and vegetables

Bacteria can be found on your favorite fruit and veggies.

If you’re not careful, that bacteria could cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Cleaning up is less effective than not contaminating it in the first place, so make it a habit to keep surfaces as clean as possible the first time to avoid cross-contamination. ​