The incidence and outcomes from Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized adults with inflammatory bowel disease.
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) may worsen outcomes in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but large database-driven studies have conflicting results. The study objective is to analyze clinical features and outcomes in patients with CDI and IBD using the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) database from 2005 to 2009.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
NHDS collects the clinical information on patients dismissed from non-Federal short-stay United States hospitals. CDI and IBD patients were identified using ICD-9 codes. Demographics, diagnoses, procedures, length of stay (LOS) and dismissal information were abstracted.
Of an estimated 162 million hospitalizations; 5.62 × 105 were for IBD (0.35%); 53.2% were female. CDI developed in 3.7% of hospitalized IBD patients as compared to 0.78% of all adults (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 3.3-4.6; p < .0001). African-Americans with IBD had a higher likelihood of CDI compared to Caucasians with IBD (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.59-1.75; p < .0001). After adjusting for age, sex and comorbidities, IBD patients with CDI had a longer LOS (mean difference 1 day, p < .0001), higher all-cause, in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 4.2-4.9; p < .0001), and a higher risk of dismissal to a care facility (adjusted OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 2.2-2.4; p < .0001).
CDI in IBD patients prolonged hospitalization and increased in-hospital mortality and likelihood of dismissal to a care-facility as compared to IBD patients without CDI. CDI was more common among African-American IBD patients compared to IBD patients of other races.