Category Archives: C. diff. Research Community

Researchers Conduct Study To Establish a Quantitative Correlation Between Applied Alcohol-Based Hand Rub ABHR Volume and Achieved Hand Coverage Utilizing an Innovate Quantitative Evaluation System

A large-scale investigation of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) volume: hand coverage correlations utilizing an innovative quantitative evaluation system

  • Constantinos Voniatis,
  • Száva Bánsághi,
  • Andrea Ferencz &
  • Tamás Haidegger

 

Abstract

Background

Current hand hygiene guidelines do not provide recommendations on a specific volume for the clinical hand rubbing procedure. According to recent studies volume should be adjusted in order to achieve complete coverage. However, hand size is a parameter that highly influences the hand coverage quality when using alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHR). The purpose of this study was to establish a quantitative correlation between applied ABHR volume and achieved hand coverage.

Method

ABHR based hand hygiene events were evaluated utilizing a digital health device, the Semmelweis hand hygiene system with respect to coverage achieved on the skin surface. Medical students and surgical residents (N = 356) were randomly selected and given predetermined ABHR volumes. Additionally, hand sizes were calculated using specialized software developed for this purpose. Drying time, ABHR volume awareness, as well spillage awareness were documented for each hand hygiene event.

Results

Hand coverage achieved during a hand hygiene event strongly depends on the applied ABHR volume. At a 1 ml dose, the uncovered hand area was approximately 7.10%, at 2 ml it decreased to 1.68%, and at 3 ml it further decreased to 1.02%. The achieved coverage is strongly correlated to hand size, nevertheless, a 3 ml applied volume proved sufficient for most hand hygiene events (84%). When applying a lower amount of ABHR (1.5 ml), even people with smaller hands failed to cover their entire hand surface. Furthermore, a 3 ml volume requires more than the guideline prescribed 20–30 s to dry. In addition, results suggest that drying time is not only affected by hand size but perhaps other factors may be involved as well (e.g., skin temperature and degree of hydration). ABHR volumes of 3.5 ml or more were inefficient, as the disinfectant spilled while the additional rubbing time did not improve hand coverage.

Conclusions

Hand sizes differ a lot among HCWs. After objectively measuring participants, the surface of the smallest hand was just over half compared to the largest hand (259 cm2 and 498 cm2, respectively). While a 3 ml ABHR volume is reasonable for medium-size hands, the need for an optimized volume of hand rub for each individual is critical, as it offers several advantages. Not only it can ensure adequate hand hygiene quality, but also prevent unnecessary costs. Bluntly increasing the volume also increases spillage and therefore waste of disinfectant in the case of smaller hands. In addition, adherence could potentially decrease due to the required longer drying time, therefore, adjusting the dosage according to hand size may also increase the overall hand hygiene compliance.

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https://aricjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13756-021-00917-8/

Clostridioides diffiicle Thrives In an Inflammed Environement ….Research Study From North Carolina State University

Clostridioides difficile thrives in an inflamed environment by generating toxins that support prolonged infection, according to a study from North Carolina State University.

The study, published in Nature Communications, showed how C. diff produces toxins that cause inflammation, eliminating competing bacteria and releasing peptides and amino acids that support the growth of C. diff.

C. diff thrives when other microbes in the gut are absent – which is why it is more prevalent following antibiotic therapy,” corresponding author Casey Theriot, Ph.D., associate professor of infectious disease at North Carolina State University, said. “But when colonizing the gut,
C. diff. also produces two large toxins, TcdA and TcdB, which cause inflammation. We wanted to know if these inflammation-causing toxins actually give C. diff a survival benefit – whether the pathogen can exploit an inflamed environment in order to thrive.”

Investigators examined two variants of C. diff in vitro and in an antibiotic-treated mouse model. The variants included a wild type C. diff that produces toxins and a genetically modified variant that does not. They found that the wild type C. diff, associated with toxin production, generated more inflammation and tissue damage than the mutant.

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https://www.contagionlive.com/view/clostridioides-difficile-thrives-in-inflamed-environment

Investigators also found changes in the expression of metabolic genes, with C. diff in the inflamed environment expressing more genes related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism that sustains growth.

C. diff’s toxins damage the cells that line the gut,” Theriot said. “These cells contain collagen, which is made up of amino acids and peptides. When collagen is degraded by toxins,
C. diff responds by turning on expression of genes that can use these amino acids for growth.”

Inflammation provided a second benefit to C. diff by creating an inhospitable environment for other bacteria that compete for nutrients. Bacteroidaceae were present in control groups that weren’t infected with toxin-producing C. diff, which was consistent with previous studies that found negative associations between C. diff and Bacteroidaceae.

“I always found it interesting that C. diff causes such intense inflammation,” first author Josh Fletcher, Ph.D., a former postdoctoral researcher at North Carolina State University, said. “Our research shows that this inflammation may contribute to the persistence of C. diff in the gut environment, prolonging infection.”

C. diff is the most significant cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea, causing more than 223,900 infections and 12,800 deaths in the US in 2017, according to a recent report.

The disease has two phases, a spore phase, and vegetative phase. Toxins are released during the vegetative phase, causing diarrhea and other symptoms. But the pathogen is often transmitted during the spore phase, during which it is hardy and isn’t susceptible to gastric acids and alcohol-based hand sanitizer, experts explained during a recent discussion of the disease.

Risks for infection include exposure to C. diff spores and antibiotic use. An investigational drug to prevent the disruption of the gut microbiota by antibiotics is among the most recent developments in the fight against a C diff. infection.

 

Destiny Pharma Update On the Acquired NTCD-M3 Biotherapeutic Clinical Program For Prevention of Recurrence of C. diff. Infections (rCDI)

Update on the recently acquired NTCD-M3 biotherapeutic clinical programme for prevention of recurrence of C. difficile infections

Press release by Destiny Pharma:

Brighton, United Kingdom – 22 December 2020: Destiny Pharma plc (AIM: DEST) a clinical-stage innovative biotechnology company focused on the development of novel medicines that can prevent life-threatening infections, announces it is making good progress with preparations for the clinical development of NTCD-M3, a Phase 3 ready biotherapeutic for the prevention of C. difficile infection (CDI) recurrence.

Following the successful fundraising of £10.4 million in November 2020 and completion of the acquisition of NTCD-M3, Destiny Pharma has commenced the work required to prepare for the Phase 3 clinical study that is scheduled to start in 2022.

Also, Professor Dale Gerding has joined Destiny Pharma’s Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) and is working as a key consultant. His world-leading expertise in C. difficile infections and many years of research and clinical work on NTCD-M3 will be invaluable and he is an important addition to our team.

Destiny Pharma has also signed a major new contract with a leading biotherapeutics manufacturing company for the establishment of a new NTCD-M3 process for the production of the Phase 3 clinical trial doses. Establishing the new manufacturer will deliver a more efficient process and a lower-cost product and is an important investment in the overall NTCD-M3 project. The Company is also starting business development efforts and will reach out to potential commercial partners and grant funding bodies to raise awareness of the re-activated NTCD-M3 clinical programme.

In the US, there are approximately 500,000 cases of CDI each year; around 25% of these initial cases then recur leading to 29,000 deaths per year. Current CDI treatment options are limited with lower efficacy observed when patients are retreated with the same antibiotic for recurrence of CDI. The extra costs of care in the US per CDI patient range from $10,000 to $20,000 and the total annual CDI-attributable cost in the US alone is estimated in 2016 at $6.3 billion.

Dr. Bill Love, Chief Scientific Officer of Destiny Pharma, said, “We are very pleased to have started activities immediately on our new NTCD-M3 project. Setting up the new manufacturing process is a key step to deliver the doses of NTCD-M3 product required for the single, 800 patient Phase 3 study required by the US FDA. The work will also look at scaling up the process towards commercial supply. We look forward to announcing further progress in 2021.”

Professor Dale Gerding, the discoverer of NTCD-M3, and member of Destiny Pharma’s SAB, added: “I am enthusiastic about the resumption of the final phase of development of NTCD-M3 and welcome the opportunity to work with Destiny Pharma to bring it to patients. As a C. difficile clinician and researcher for nearly 40 years, my mission has been to see this terrible infection prevented. Everything that has been done to date suggests that NTCD-M3 will provide the preventive strategy needed to not only prevent recurrence of C. difficile infection but to also prevent it from ever occurring in the most vulnerable patients.”

Inquiries:

Destiny Pharma plc
Neil Clark (Chief Executive Officer)
Shaun Claydon (Chief Financial Officer and Company Secretary)
+44 (0) 1273 704 440

finnCap Limited – Nominated Adviser and Joint Broker
Geoff Nash / Kate Bannatyne / Charlie Beeson (Corporate Finance)
Alice Lane (ECM)
+44 (0) 20 7220 0500

WG Partners LLP – Joint Broker
Nigel Barnes / Claes Spång / Nigel Birks / Andrew Craig
+44 (0) 20 3705 9330

Optimum Strategic Communications
Mary Clark / Shabnam Bashir / Manel Mateus
+44 (0) 203 174 1789

About NTCD-M3
NTCD-M3 (non-toxigenic C. difficile strain M3) was developed by the US infectious diseases physician, Professor Dale Gerding, who is a world-leading specialist in C. difficile infection, with more than 400 peer-reviewed journal publications, book chapters, and review articles in the area. NTCD-M3 has successfully completed Phase 1 and Phase 2b trials. The Phase 1 study demonstrated a strong safety/toxicology profile and Phase 2b showed that the best dose delivered a 95% prevention of CDI recurrence. The Phase 2b NTCD-M3 data was published in the prestigious Journal of the American Medical Association (Gerding DN et al JAMA
2015;313:1719).

C. difficile NTCD-M3 is a naturally occurring non-toxigenic strain of C. difficile bacteria, which lacks the genes that can express C. difficile toxins. It is an oral formulation of NTCD-M3 spores and patients who have taken NTCD-M3 were found to be protected from recurrence of C. difficile infections. NTCD-M3 acts as a safe “ground cover” preventing toxic strains of C. difficile proliferating in the colon after antibiotic treatment. NTCD-M3 temporarily colonizes the human gut without causing any symptoms allowing the gut microbiome time to recover following antibiotic treatment.

About Destiny Pharma
Destiny Pharma is a clinical-stage, innovative biotechnology company focused on the development of novel medicines that can prevent life-threatening infections. Its pipeline has novel microbiome-based biotherapeutics and XF drug clinical assets including NTCD-M3, a Phase 3 ready treatment for the prevention of C. difficile infection (CDI) recurrence which is the leading cause of hospital-acquired infection in the US, and also XF-73 nasal gel, which is in a Phase 2b clinical trial targeting the prevention of postsurgical Staphylococcal hospital infections including MRSA. It is also co-developing SPOR-COV, a novel, biotherapeutic product for the prevention of COVID-19 and other viral respiratory infections, and has earlier grant-funded XF research projects.

For further information, please visit https://www.destinypharma.com

Study Shows the Burden of CDI During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Retrospective Case-Control Study in Italian Hospitals (CloVid)

Clovid

** To View the Article In Its Entirety Please Access the .pdf Referenced Above. Thank you.

Article
The Burden of Clostridioides Difficile Infection
during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Retrospective
Case-Control Study in Italian Hospitals (CloVid)

Guido Granata 1,* , Alessandro Bartoloni 2, , Mauro Codeluppi 3, , Ilaria Contadini 4, Francesco Criistini 4, , Massimo Fantoni 5, , Alice Ferraresi 6, , Chiara Fornabaio 6, , Sara Grasselli 3,
Filippo Lagi 2, , Luca Masucci 5,, Massimo Puoti 7, , Alessandro Raimondi 7, , Eleonora Taddei 8
,Filippo Fabio Trapani 9, , Pierluigi Viale 9, , Stuart Johnson 10, Nicola Petrosillo 1, and on behalf of the CloVid Study Group †

1 Clinical and Research Department for Infectious Diseases, Severe and Immunedepression-Associated
Infections Unit, National Institute for Infectious Diseases L. Spallanzani IRCCS, 00149 Rome, Italy;  nicola.petrosillo@inmi.it
2 Department of Infectious Diseases, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, 50121 Florence, Italy;alessandro.bartoloni@unifi.it (A.B.); filippo.lagi@unifi.it (F.L.)
3Infectious Diseases Unit, Guglielmo da Saliceto Hospital, 29121 Piacenza, Italy;
m.codeluppi@ausl.pc.it (M.C.); s.grasselli@ausl.pc.it (S.G.)
4Infectious Diseases Unit, Rimini-Forlì-Cesena Hospitals, 48121 Rimini, Italy;
ilaria.contadini@auslromagna.it (I.C.); francesco.cristini@auslromagna.it (F.C.)
5 Dipartimento di Scienze di Laboratorio e Infettivologiche —Fondazione Policlinico A. Gemelli IRCCS,Via della Pineta Sacchetti, 00168 Rome, Italy; massimo.fantoni@policlinicogemelli.it (M.F.);
luca.masucci@policlinicogemelli.it (L.M.)
6Infectious Diseases Unit, ASST Cremona, 26100 Cremona, Italy; alice.ferraresi@asst-cremona.it (A.F.);c.fornabaio@asst-cremona.it (C.F.)
7Infectious Diseases Unit, ASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, 20162 Milan, Italy;
massimo.puoti@ospedaleniguarda.it (M.P.); alessandro.raimondi@ospedaleniguarda.it (A.R.)
8 Dipartimento di Sicurezza e Bioetica—Sezione di Malattie Infettive—Fondazione Policlinico A.
Gemelli IRCCS, Via della Pineta Sacchetti, 00168 Rome, Italy; eleonora.taddei@policlinicogemelli.it
9 Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Infectious Diseases Unit,
Alma Mater Studiorum–University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy; filippofabio.trapani@aosp.bo.it (F.F.T.);
pierluigi.viale@unibo.it (P.V.)
10 Research Service, Hines VA Hospital and Infectious Disease Section, Loyola University Medical Center,
Maywood, IL 60153, USA; stuart.johnson2@va.gov
* Correspondence: guido.granata@inmi.it; Tel.: +39-065-517-0241
† CloVid (Clostridioides difficile infection during the COVID-19) Study Group.
Received: 28 October 2020; Accepted: 25 November 2020; Published: 27 November 2020

Abstract: Data on the burden of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in Coronavirus Disease
2019 (COVID-19) patients are scant. We conducted an observational, retrospective, multicenter,
1:3 case (COVID-19 patients with CDI)-control (COVID-19 patients without CDI) study in Italy
to assess incidence and outcomes, and to identify risk factors for CDI in COVID-19 patients.
From February through July 2020, 8402 COVID-19 patients were admitted to eight Italian hospitals;

38 CDI cases were identified, including 32 hospital-onset-CDI (HO-CDI) and 6 community-onset,
healthcare-associated-CDI (CO-HCA-CDI). HO-CDI incidence was 4.4 × 10,000 patient-days.
The percentage of cases recovering without complications at discharge (i.e., pressure ulcers, chronic heart decompensation) was lower than among controls (p = 0.01); in-hospital stays were longer among cases, 35.0 versus 19.4 days (p = 0.0007). The presence of a previous hospitalization (p = 0.001), previous
steroid administration (p = 0.008) and the administration of antibiotics during the stay (p = 0.004) were risk factors associated with CDI. In conclusions, CDI complicates COVID-19, mainly in patients with J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3855; doi:10.3390/jcm9123855 http://www.mdpi.com/journal/jcm J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3855 2 of 11 co-morbidities and previous healthcare exposures. Its association with antibiotic usage and hospital-acquired bacterial infections should lead to strengthen antimicrobial stewardship programmes and infection prevention and control activities

1. Introduction
Since 31 December 2019, when the World Health Organization (WHO) was informed of an
outbreak of a respiratory disease affecting the city of Wuhan, the world has been shaken by the
most profound health crisis of the last several decades [1,2]. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread rapidly worldwide with the consequence of causing a serious health threat to humans on every continent.  At present, more than thirty million people are known to have been infected, which has placed a great burden on health care systems and heightened anxiety and psychological stress of medical staff [3].

The lack of high-level evidence, inherent to the novelty and rapid spread of COVID-19, has led to
the adoption of heterogeneous therapeutic management approaches, often without a clear distinction between evidence-based data and expert opinion in informing treatment choices. The high number shortage of beds, especially in critical areas, and the need for healthcare worker protection have challenged compliance with infection control and antibiotic stewardship programs in most health-care facilities facing this emergent threat of COVID-19 [4]. During the pandemic many health-care facilities gave priority to the protection of their healthcare workers from COVID-19, reducing attention to the prevention of other bacterial infections transmitted by interpersonal contact. Moreover, most of the early recommendations for the management of COVID-19 patients considered the use of empirical antibiotic treatment, resulting in large usage of antimicrobials in COVID-19 patients. Up to 94% of COVID-19 patients have been reported to receive empirical antibiotic therapy during their hospital stay [4–9]. Bacterial superinfections have been described in the course of COVID-19 disease
and early reports of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) co-infection have been published [10,11]. CDI is commonly associated with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, absence of antimicrobial stewardship, inadequate infection control, and hospital overcrowding [12]. Currently, we do not have a clear picture of the burden of CDI in COVID-19 patients and there is a lack of data on the prevalence and clinical manifestations of CDI in COVID-19 patients.
The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of CDI in hospitalized COVID-19 patients,
to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with CDI and to identify risk factors for the onset of CDI in COVID-19 patients.

2. Materials and Methods
We conducted an observational, retrospective, national multicenter, case-control study with 1:3
matching to assess the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with CDI. In addition, we evaluated risk factors associated with the occurrence of CDI in COVID-19 patients. The study was performed in 8 acute-care Italian hospitals admitting COVID-19 patients, between February 2020 and July 2020 (Figure 1 and Table S1). All the hospitals have an Infectious Disease Unit. The study was approved by the Ethics Committees of the participant hospitals.J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3855 3 of 11 J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 3 of 11

Figure 1. Geographical distribution of participating centers. The detailed list of the eight participating centers is available as supplementary material (Table S1).
2.1. Study Design Hospitalized adult (>18 years old) patients with COVID-19 and CDI were identified from the databases of the participant centers. Cases were defined as COVID-19 patients with CDI; controls were COVID-19 patients without CDI. Cases were matched 1:3 with controls. Demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data (COVID-19 onset and clinical characteristics, medications given for COVID-19, antimicrobial treatments before and after the diagnosis of COVID-19, laboratory data, CDI onset and characteristic, and patient’s outcome) were collected in clinical record forms (CRF)

(Table S2).
Controls were matched to cases according to the following criteria:
1. Same gender
2. Hospitalization in the same hospital and in the same unit
3. Same date of hospital admission ± 7 days
4. Same age ± 3 years
All cases and controls were followed up to 30 days from their hospital discharge to assess for
new onset of diarrhea, recurrence of CDI, and mortality at 30 days from the hospital discharge.
The definitions of CDI, microbiological evidence of C. difficile, CDI recurrence, mild CDI, severe
CDI and complicated CDI and the definitions of the clinical syndromes associated with COVID-19
adopted in the study are described in Table S3.

2.2. Data Analysis
The incidence of CDI among all COVID-19 patients admitted to the participating hospitals was
calculated using as the numerator the number of CDI cases and as the denominator the number of days of hospitalization of the COVID-19 patients (× 10,000). The characteristics of the study population and Figure 1. Geographical distribution of participating centers. The detailed list of the eight participating centers is available as supplementary material (Table S1).

2.1. Study Design
Hospitalized adult (>18 years old) patients with COVID-19 and CDI were identified from the
databases of the participant centers. Cases were defined as COVID-19 patients with CDI; controls were COVID-19 patients without CDI. Cases were matched 1:3 with controls. Demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data (COVID-19 onset and clinical characteristics, medications given for COVID-19, antimicrobial treatments before and after the diagnosis of COVID-19, laboratory data, CDI onset and characteristic, and patient’s outcome) were collected in clinical record forms (CRF) (Table S2).

Controls were matched to cases according to the following criteria:
1. Same gender
2. Hospitalization in the same hospital and in the same unit
3. Same date of hospital admission ±7 days
4. Same age ±3 years
All cases and controls were followed up to 30 days from their hospital discharge to assess for new onset of diarrhea, recurrence of CDI, and mortality at 30 days from the hospital discharge.
The definitions of CDI, microbiological evidence of C. difficile, CDI recurrence, mild CDI, severe
CDI and complicated CDI and the definitions of the clinical syndromes associated with COVID-19
adopted in the study are described in Table S3.

2.2. Data Analysis
The incidence of CDI among all COVID-19 patients admitted to the participating hospitals was
calculated using as the numerator the number of CDI cases and as the denominator the number of days of hospitalization of the COVID-19 patients (× 10,000). The characteristics of the study population and the patient outcome were evaluated by means of descriptive statistics. The potential correlations J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 3855 4 of 11
between CDI and clinical variables of COVID-19 (infection onset, severity) and laboratory findings were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. To identify risk factors for onset of CDI in COVID-19 patients and any determinants of delayed diagnosis of CDI, the characteristics of the CDI group were compared to the control group by means of univariate and multivariate analysis.

2.3. Statistical Analysis
Quantitative variables were tested for normal distribution and compared by means of a paired
t-test. Qualitative differences between groups were assessed by use of Fisher’s exact test. The precision of odd ratio (OR) was determined by calculating a 95% confidence interval (CI). A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Variables from the univariate analysis were considered for inclusion in multivariate logistic regression analysis if p-value was less than 0.05. Backward stepwise logistic regression was performed, and the model that was considered biologically plausible and had the lowest −2 log-likelihood ratio was chosen as the final model. Statistical analysis was performed using the software program IBM SPSS version 24.

3. Results
3.1. CDI Incidence among COVID-19 Patients
Overall, during the study period, a total of 40,315 patients were admitted to the eight participant hospitals; of these, 8402 were COVID-19 patients. The mean hospital stay for COVID-19 patients was 13.8 days (range 1–59 days). Thirty-eight CDI cases were identified, including 32 hospital-onset CDI (HO-CDI) and 6 community-onset, healthcare-associated CDI (CO-HCA-CDI) cases. Therefore, during the study period, 32 COVID-19 patients developed HO-CDI, corresponding to an HO-CDI prevalence of 0.38%, and an HO-CDI incidence of 4.4 × 10,000 patient days ranging in the hospitals from 0.7 to 12.3 × 10,000 patient days (Table S4).
3.2. Clinical Features of Clostridioides Difficile Infection in COVID-19 Patients
The demographic and epidemiological data, the comorbidities, the clinical characteristics, and
the outcome of the 38 COVID-19 patients with CDI and of the 114 controls included in the study are described in Table 1. The mean laboratory findings at the admission of the 38 COVID-19 patients with CDI and of the 114 controls are shown in Table 2. The CDI characteristics, severity, management, and follow-up of the 38 COVID-19 patients with CDI included in the study are shown in Table 3.

Table 1. Demographic and epidemiological data, comorbidities, clinical characteristics of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and outcome of the 38 COVID-19 patients with CDI and of the 114 COVID-19 controls included in the study. CCI: Charlson Co-morbidity Index. LTHCF: long-term health care facility. ARDS: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. LMWH: Low Molecular Weight

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Researchers Evaluate Isolation, Safety, Probiotic Property of a Novel E. thailandicus Strain, d5b With Effective Antimicrobial Activity Against C. difficile

ABSTRACT

Authors: Tinghua Li 1Lin Lyu 1Yan Zhang 1Ke Dong 1Qingtian Li 2Xiaokui Guo 3Yongzhang Zhu 4

Colitis induced by C. difficile is one of the most common and costly healthcare-related infections for humans. Probiotics are one of the most promising approaches for controlling CDI. Here, we presented the isolation, safety, and probiotic property evaluation of a novel E. thailandicus strain, d5B, with effective antimicrobial activity against C. difficile.

Strain d5B showed strong bactericidal effects on at least 54C. difficile strains. Safety tests showed that strain d5B was sensitive to clinically important antibiotics, and had no haemolytic and cytotoxic activities. Whole genomic analysis showed strain d5B only contained one aminoglycoside resistance gene located in the chromosome. Moreover, d5B was devoid of functional virulence genes. Finally, strain d5B exhibited probiotic properties, such as tolerance to the gastrointestinal tract, and adhered well to HT-29 cells. In conclusion, the E. thailandicus strain d5B should be investigated further for useful properties as a novel candidate probiotic for controlling CDI.

 

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https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32956846/