Category Archives: Environmental Safety Products in Healthcare

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Announced Methods and Guidance for Evaluating Efficacy of Antimicrobial Products against Clostridium difficile Spores

 

On September 29, 2017, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the availability of two final test method Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for evaluating the efficacy of antimicrobial products against  Clostridium difficile (C. diff) spores.

EPA also released regulatory guidance for test criteria and pesticide claims for these products, specifically “Methods and Guidance for Testing the Efficacy of Antimicrobial Products Against Spores of Clostridium difficile on Hard Non-Porous Surfaces.”  These test methods and guidance provide a framework for registrants who seek to make a claim for antimicrobial pesticide products to control these spores on hard, non-porous surfaces.

C. diff is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium and a  leading hospital-acquired infection.  The spores survive on hard surfaces such as glass, metals, and plastics that are commonly found in health-care settings.

Antimicrobial pesticides are used to reduce the number of spores on environmental surfaces.  Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the registrant of an antimicrobial product with a public health claim is required to submit efficacy data to EPA in support of the product’s registration.

EPA MLB SOP MB-28 describes the test methodology for producing and storing standardized spore suspensions of C. diff based on ASTM E2839, Standard Test Method for Production of C. difficile Spores for Use in Efficacy Evaluation of Antimicrobial Agents (ASTM International).  A spore suspension should be developed and qualified according to EPA MLB SOP MB-28 before an efficacy evaluation can be performed using method EPA MLB SOP MB-31.  EPA MLB SOP MB-31 describes a quantitative method intended for evaluating the sporicidal efficacy of liquid disinfectants against spores of C. diff on inanimate, hard, non-porous surfaces.

EPA solicited comments on the clarity of the test method SOPs and the regulatory guidance in December 2016.  EPA received comments from twelve entities and revised the drafts to incorporate suggested changes.  EPA posted its response to those comments in Docket No. EPA-HQ-OPP-2016-0753-0026.  EPA also is working with ASTM International, a standard-setting organization, on adoption of these test methods as official ASTM standards.

EPA’s response to comments and other documents associated with this action are available in Docket No. EPA-HQ-OPP-2016-0753 at www.regulations.gov

The methods and guidance also are found on EPA’s Antimicrobial Testing Methods & Procedures Developed by EPA’s Microbiology Laboratory webpage, at the Methods tab as Method IDs MB-28 and MB-31, and at the Guidance tab as Sporicidal Claims Against Clostridium difficile.

 

Source:  https://www.natlawreview.com/article/methods-and-guidance-testing-efficacy-antimicrobials-against-spores-clostridium

Xenex Disinfection Services’ LightStrike™ Robot With Pulsed Xenon Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) Light Technology Introduces Its LightStrike Disinfection Pod

The scientific evidence has clearly established that in the hospital environment, microorganisms such as Clostridium difficile (C.diff), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are responsible for the infections that kill nearly 300
people in the U.S. every day.

Xenex Disinfection Services’ LightStrike™ Robot with pulsed xenon ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light technology is a proven solution that quickly destroys deadly viruses, bacteria and spores before they pose a threat to patients and healthcare workers. LightStrike Robots help healthcare facilities reduce their HAI rates by destroying the microscopic germs that may be missed during the manual cleaning process. Xenex robots use pulsed xenon, a noble gas, to create Full Spectrum™, high intensity UV light that quickly destroys infectious germs in less than five minutes. Hospitals using Xenex devices have published clinical outcome studies in peer-reviewed journals showing 50-100 percent reductions in C.diff, MRSA and Surgical Site Infection rates when those hospitals used LightStrike Robots to disinfect rooms.

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Now, for the first time, hospitals can utilize the power of

LightStrike Germ-Zapping Robots™ to quickly disinfect mobile equipment just as effectively as they disinfect rooms within their facility. Pathogens like C.diff, Acinetobacter baumannii, MRSA and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE) can travel throughout a healthcare facility on mobile equipment.

To address this gap in the infection control process, Xenex recently partnered with an industry leader in containment units, Mintie Technologies, Inc., to create the LightStrike Disinfection Pod.

Designed to quickly disinfect reusable mobile equipment such as isolettes, ventilators, pressure monitors, wheelchairs and workstations, the

LightStrike Disinfection Pod enables the power of the LightStrike Robot’s intense, germicidal light to be used anywhere in a facility.
The Pod is collapsible, mobile and can be positioned in a hospital hallway or other areas without disrupting or impeding daily workflow. Its proprietary design integrates reflective interior fabric ensuring 360 degrees of UV light coverage over difficult-to-clean equipment including anesthesia carts, ventilators, and mobile imaging machines.

To access and read the article in its entirety please click on the link below:

https://www.dotmed.com/news/story/37771

Peer Reviewed Paper Concluded The Use of TOMI’s SteraMist™ BIT™ Contributed To the Substantial Reduction In a Wilmington, Delaware Hospital’s Clostridium difficile (C. diff.) Burden

TOMI Environmental Solutions, Inc. (“TOMI”)  a global decontamination and infection prevention company that specializes in disinfection/decontamination sales and services, including the manufacturing, sale and licensing of its SteraMist™, a hydrogen peroxide-based mist/fog that is registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”), announced the publication of a peer reviewed paper titled “Use of Novel Approaches to Reduce Clostridium Difficile in an Inner City Hospital,” which concluded that the use of TOMI’s SteraMist™ BIT™ contributed to the substantial reduction in a Wilmington, Delaware hospital’s Clostridium Difficile (C. Diff) burden. The paper was written by Dr. Helene Paxton, MS, MT (ASCP), PhD, CIC, Infection Preventionist, Bio Guidance, LLC and member of TOMI’s Science Advisory Board, and outlines the incorporation of SteraMist™ BIT™ into everyday disinfection protocols of a healthcare facility. This paper was peer reviewed by Dr. Uyen Nguyen.

“In the healthcare space, TOMI has been making strides to continuously demonstrate the efficacy of SteraMist™ in combating and reducing hospital infections,” said Dr. Halden Shane, CEO and Chairman of TOMI Environmental Solutions, Inc. “This further review and publication of the efficacy of TOMI’s SteraMist™ is an important verification in our battle to address the increase in C. diff infections, which lead to thousands of deaths in the U.S. each year.”

To read this article in its entirety please click on the following link:

https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2017/04/03/953811/0/en/SteraMist-Contributes-to-Substantial-Reduction-in-Clostridium-Difficile-Burden-in-Hospital.html

Nearly 300 people die in the U.S. every day from an infection they acquired during their hospital stay, and the death toll is even higher internationally. Healthcare Associated Infections (HAIs), including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are becoming an international crisis. Bacterial spores such as C. diff have become an even larger problem in hospitals and in their respective communities, and it is estimated that nearly half a million Americans contract C. diff every year.

TOMI’s EPA registered BIT™ (Binary Ionization Technology®), branded as SteraMist™, converts a low percentage hydrogen peroxide into a hydroxyl radical by passing the liquid through an atmospheric cold plasma arc, a technology initially developed under the sponsorship of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the U.S. Department of Defense. SteraMist™ BIT™ quickly destroys deadly viruses, bacteria and spores before they pose a threat to patients, healthcare workers and their communities.

TOMI’s SteraMist™ helps hospitals reduce their HAI rates by destroying the microscopic germs that may be missed during the manual cleaning process. TOMI’s germ fighting technology uses an environmentally-friendly process, the only by-product of which is oxygen and humidity. The SteraMist™ aerosol quickly destroys infectious germs in less than five seconds. Hospitals using SteraMist™ devices have reported and published outcomes in papers and in a peer-reviewed journal showing significant decreases in C. diff rooms after the use of SteraMist.

Dr. Shane further stated: “Hospitals can and should do more to keep patients safe. No one wants a loved one to go to the hospital and contract C. diff or any hospital acquired infection. Hospitals routinely using SteraMist™ have repeatedly demonstrated lower infection rates, which leads to enhanced patient and employee safety. Hospitals using our technology can stop the spread of infections while improving their bottom line.”

Uniquely designed for ease of use and portability, a hospital’s environmental services staff can operate SteraMist™ quickly without disrupting hospital operations. With a five second exposure time, the surface unit can disinfect a hospital room’s high touch surfaces and delicate medical equipment in less than 10 minutes. SteraMist™ is designed to go in, above, beyond, under and around objects in patient rooms, operating rooms, equipment rooms, emergency rooms, intensive care units and public areas. SteraMist™ does not damage medical equipment. Many hospitals in the U.S., Europe, West Africa, Central America and Asia have used SteraMist™ in their decontamination protocols. SteraMist™is also used in skilled nursing facilities, ambulatory surgery centers, long term acute care facilities and childcare facilities.

About TOMI Environmental Solutions, Inc.

TOMI Environmental Solutions, Inc. (OTCQX:TOMZ) is a global decontamination and infection prevention company, providing eco-friendly environmental solutions for indoor surface disinfection through manufacturing, sales and licensing of its premier Binary Ionization Technology® (BIT™) platform, which was invented under a defense grant in association with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) of the U.S. Department of Defense. BIT™ uses a low percentage Hydrogen Peroxide as its only active ingredient to produce a hydroxyl radical (OH ion) and is represented by the TOMI™ SteraMist™ brand of products, which produce a germ-killing aerosol that behaves like a gas.

TOMI’s products are designed to service a broad spectrum of commercial structures including hospitals and medical facilities, cruise ships, office buildings, hotel and motel rooms, schools, restaurants, for non-food safety in meat and produce processing facilities, military barracks, and athletic facilities. TOMI’s products and services have also been used in single-family homes and multi-unit residences.

TOMI also develops training programs and application protocols for its clients and is a member in good standing of The American Biological Safety Association, The American Association of Tissue Banks, Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and The Restoration Industry Association. For additional information, visit www.tomimist.com or contact us at info@tomimist.com.

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward Looking Statements

Certain written and oral statements made by us may constitute “forward-looking statements” as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 (the “Reform Act”). Forward-looking statements are identified by such words and phrases as “we expect,” “expected to,” “estimates,” “estimated,” “current outlook,” “we look forward to,” “would equate to,” “projects,” “projections,” “projected to be,” “anticipates,” “anticipated,” “we believe,” “could be,” and other similar phrases. All statements addressing operating performance, events, or developments that we expect or anticipate will occur in the future, including statements relating to revenue growth, earnings, earnings-per-share growth, or similar projections, are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Reform Act. They are forward-looking, and they should be evaluated in light of important risk factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from our anticipated results. The information provided in this document is based upon the facts and circumstances known at this time. We undertake no obligation to update these forward-looking statements after the date of this release.

DISCLAIMER
“The C Diff Foundation’s mission is to educate and advocate for Clostridium difficile infection prevention, treatments, support, and environmental safety worldwide.
 
The C Diff Foundation’s organization is comprised of 100% volunteering members who are dedicated to our mission and adhere to the Foundation’s Code of Ethics
which prohibits the endorsement and promotion of products, services, medications, or clinical studies in progress. 
 
All website entries, public presentations, and workshops are to raise C. diff. infection awareness in all areas of the C Diff Foundation’s mission statement, including infection prevention, sepsis, healthcare-associated infections, antimicrobial resistance, antibiotic stewardship and provide education on all the above.”

UV-C Disinfecting Takes Its Place At Thompson Hospital and the M.M. Ewing Continuing Care Center in New York State

 

UV Disinfecting

Accomplished by using  short-wave
ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light as a germicidal to destroy viruses, bacteria and other pathogens that can linger on surfaces and hide in shadows.

One piece of equipmnet can disinfect an average-sized patient room in about 8 minutes and is deployed after a room is sanitized with standard techniques and cleaning products.

In  Canandaigua, New York  a nearly 6 foot tall and wielding 20 vertical fluorescent bulbs, the R-D Rapid Disinfector robot is a formidable fighter in the war against germs.

This UV disinfecting robot is The R-D Rapid Disinfector — developed by a Rochester, New York  firm, Steriliz LLC, and is manufactured locally.

Thompson Hospital and the M.M. Ewing Continuing Care Center have begun using this automated disinfecting machine throughout the institutions to help reduce the risks of illness and infections for patients, residents, visitors and staff.

The Disinfector uses short-wave ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light as a germicidal to destroy viruses, bacteria and other pathogens that can linger on surfaces and hide in shadows. This machine can disinfect an average-sized patient room in about 8 minutes and is deployed after a room is sanitized with standard techniques. It is remotely controlled by an associate from Environmental Services.

The UV-C light fills the entire room, reaching and disinfecting areas that human hands might miss. No one is allowed inside the room when the lights are working. This no-touch cleaning system gets rid of some of the most dangerous and difficult-to-destroy bacteria, including Clostridium difficile (C. diff). Disinfectants work on the surface of non-living objects by destroying the cell wall of harmful microbes or interfering with their metabolism.

“This technology, added on to normal, regular, manual environmental cleaning, gives me a sense of ease that we are doing all we can to keep our environment clean and our patients safe,” said Thompson Health Director of Infection Prevention Michelle Vignari. “We are just now starting to see published literature supporting that the addition of UV-C technology in hospitals actually does correlate with a reduction of healthcare-acquired infections.”

This state-of-the-art robot monitors the entire disinfection process. Wireless sensors measure, record and report on UV-C light dosages delivered to specific areas in real time. The machine can be paused and repositioned to maximize efficiency, including targeting shadowed areas. The Disinfector shuts off automatically once the sensors indicate that enough UV-C light has been emitted to kill the germs.

“In a day of delivering high-reliability care, I felt very strongly that we needed a technology that we could measure and evaluate its performance,” Vignari said.

Hospital staff like the Disinfector too.

“It is pretty simple to use and seems to be working great,” said Stephanie Fowler of Environmental Services, who activates the robot after a room is cleaned with traditional methods.

The R-D Rapid Disinfector was developed by a Rochester firm, Steriliz LLC, and is manufactured locally. The Disinfector uniquely provides FDA-patented wireless sensors to measure the amount of UV-C light delivered to an area and real-time online data access and reports. Since being tried in four Rochester hospitals in 2011, several hundred of these Disinfectors are now being used in hospitals, care homes, disaster centers and government installations worldwide.

Steriliz is recognized as a world leader in UV-C disinfection.

“Improving the health and safety of patients is a blessed opportunity,” said CEO and President Sam Trapani. “The potential market for the company’s product is large and we are experiencing a high growth curve.”

To read the article in its entirety please click on the link below:

http://www.mpnnow.com/news/20170318/robot-destroys-germs-with-power-of-light

Member of St. Joseph Hoag Health Network – Mission Hospital Laguna Beach, CA Adds a UV Disinfection Robot To Protect Against the Spread of Infections

6th Graders Receive Up Close and Personal Education with a Light-Pulsing, Disinfecting Robot

Sharing and Educating

Opening eyes of the young with disinfecting

technology being utilized to combat “superbugs.”

 

The only robot in the Verdugo region that zaps away unwanted bacteria and viruses from hospital rooms arrived at USC-Verdugo Hills Hospital two weeks ago.

The Xenex robot emits a pulsating, bright white UV-C light — which is a short, wavelength, ultraviolet light that can save lives. Once surfaces are exposed to the robot’s rays, harmful bacteria and viruses die, greatly reducing the odds patients will be infected with hospital-acquired infections, including those caused by superbugs such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, known as MRSA.

USC-Verdugo Hills Hospital employees joined Xenex employees at Fremont Elementary School, where they showcased the $100,000 machine in teacher Mallory Kane’s sixth-grade classroom, the same place where Keith Hobbs, chief executive of Verdugo Hills Hospital, was a sixth-grader in 1979. “There’s no other place that I would rather be than to come back to my alma mater and share this R2D2, bug-zapping machine with you guys,” Hobbs said.

The Xenex robot pulses UV-C light 67 times per second, and hospital staff take precautions when they operate it because the light can harm their eyes.

“This is not any light bulb in your house,” said Mary Virgallito, director of patient safety for the hospital. “It’s actually filled with a gas called xenon.”

Virgallito said hospital employees manually clean rooms before they activate Xenex. It takes the robot about 15 minutes to clean a patient’s room, and 20 minutes to disinfect an operating room.Hobbs said mothers ask if they can borrow the robot to disinfect their own homes, and Kane suggested it would be helpful in the classroom. Over the past several weeks, many of her students missed school because they were sick.

Jeff Mamalakis, business development manager for Xenex, volunteered to disinfect Kane’s room when school let out. The space would be left with a scent as if lightning had just struck, Virgallito said.  The impromptu high-tech, germ-cleansing session was a dream come true for Kane.

“In sixth grade, the curriculum moves so quickly that even missing one day puts kids so far behind,” Kane said. “Having our classroom disinfected every day would be a dream come true. My kids would be here, everyone would be happy, no one would have to miss school.”

To Read the article in its entirety please click on the following link:

http://finance.yahoo.com/news/uhc-most-xenex-germ-zapping-144500378.html;_ylt=A0LEV18lQNBY2KgA6FZXNyoA;_ylu=X3oDMTEzMXBobHNmBGNvbG8DYmYxBHBvcwMxBHZ0aWQDVUkwMkM0XzEEc2VjA3Nj

Reviewing the Benefits Of Enhanced Terminal Room (BETR-D) Disinfection Study, C.difficile Infection Rates Unchanged

c-diff

If you are concerned about C. difficile Infections being battled in Hospitals today review the Abstract and Scientific evidence from the 2015  BETR-D Study

“….adding UV light to bleach in rooms linked to C. difficile had no effect, ” Dr. Deverick J. Anderson, MD, MPH, FIDSA, FSHEA reported

 

MedPage Today  http://www.medpagetoday.com/meetingcoverage/idweek/54043

Adding ultraviolet light or bleach plus UV light also showed a trend toward a reduced risk, Anderson said at the IDWeek meeting, held in 2015 jointly by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA), the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), and the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS).

On the other hand, the benefit of what Anderson called “enhanced terminal disinfection” varied among the four pathogens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), multidrug-resistant (MDR) acetinobacter, and Clostridium difficile.

   What was the BETR-D Study?

The BETR-Disinfection study was performed over 28 months in 9 study hospitals from 4/2012 to 7/2014.

  • Each hospital used four strategies for terminal room disinfection in a randomized sequence.
  • Each strategy was used for 7-month study arms, including a 1 month wash-in period.
  • Two of these strategies used a UV-C emitting device.
  • Standard cleaning involved the use of a quaternary ammonium (reference group A). Three enhanced cleaning strategies were evaluated and compared to the reference: quaternary ammonium + UV-C (B), bleach (C), and bleach + UV-C (D).Of  note, bleach was used for daily and terminal disinfection of all known C. difficile rooms, regardless of study arm.
  • Study cleaning strategies were employed in seed rooms, defined as a room containing a patient on contact precautions for infection or colonization due to the following 4 target MDROs was discharged: MRSA, VRE, C. difficile, or MDR Acinetobacter.
  • The next patient in the room was considered an exposed patient.
  • Primary outcome was the clinical incidence of all target MDROs in patients exposed for at least 24 hours, defined as the first positive culture of a MDRO a) during exposure to the seed room, if positivity occurred ≥48 hr post-admission to the seed room, or b) in the 90 days following seed room exposure for MRSA, VRE, and MDR-Acinetobacter and 28 days for C. difficile.
  • Rates were calculated as outcome/10,000 exposure days using intention-to-treat and per protocol principles

To read the study Abstract in its entirety please click on the following link:

https://idsa.confex.com/idsa/2015/webprogram/Paper53062.html

A study of a large cluster-randomized trial, adding bleach to the standard quaternary ammonium cleaning significantly reduced the risk of transmission of four organisms that cause healthcare-associated infections

A Cluster Randomized, Multicenter Crossover Study with 2×2 Factorial Design to Evaluate the Impact of Enhanced Terminal Room Disinfection on Acquisition and Infection Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Organisms (MDRO)

Anderson and colleagues in the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network tested the four cleaning strategies over 28 months in nine hospitals, with hospitals switching strategies every 7 months.

The goal was to see if they could reduce the overall incidence of the targeted pathogens among patients using a room immediately after a patient known to be colonized or infected by one of the four occupied it. A second primary endpoint was the effect on C. difficile.

He noted that all rooms in which a patient had had C. difficile were cleaned with bleach, so the comparisons were actually between quaternary ammonium and bleach and the same approach adding UV light.

All told, the study had 23,272 patients potentially exposed to a pathogen — they spent at least 24 hours in one of the “seed” rooms where the previous patient had been identified as having one of the pathogens.

Patients in seed rooms became cases if they developed colonization or infection by the pathogens linked to their rooms, as long as they had no history of the pathogen in the previous year and no evidence of community acquisition, he said.

In the four arms, Anderson reported:

  • There were 115 cases in 22,426 exposure days in the standard cleaning arm, for a rate of 51.3 cases per 10,000 exposure days.
  • In the arm adding ultraviolet, there were 76 cases in 22,389 exposure days for a rate of 33.9
  • When bleach was added, there were 101 cases in 24,261 exposure days, for a rate of 41.6.
  • And when both bleach and UV were added, there were 131 cases in 28,757 exposure days, for a rate of 45.6.

The reductions, compared with standard cleaning, were 30%, 15% and 9%, respectively, but only the addition of UV light to quaternary ammonium reached statistical significance (P=0.036).

There were too few cases of MDR acetinobacter to quantify, he said, but it was possible to judge the effect of the various interventions on the other three pathogens.

For MRSA, adding UV light to quaternary ammonium reduced the risk of transmission by 22%, but the difference from standard cleaning fell short of statistical significance. The other two interventions made no difference.

For VRE, on the other hand, all three test strategies reduced the risk of transmission by about 60% — 59% for UV, 57% for bleach, and 64% for bleach plus UV. However, Anderson said, the UV arm was just short of statistical significance, while the other two were significantly different from standard cleaning (P=0.049 and P=0.003, respectively).

But adding UV light to bleach in rooms linked to C. difficile had no effect, Anderson reported.

Note: Not all UV disinfecting products are the same– in the way they are scientifically developed, manufactured, and utilized in the healthcare industry.  It is favorable for Hospital and Healthcare facility decision-makers to ask some tough questions when it comes to evaluating UV technologies. The gold standard for assessing new technologies is to evaluate peer-reviewed literature published and also cited in The Lancet publication.  Please click on the The Lancet article link below to retrieve additional information focused on the BETR-D study.

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(16)31588-4/abstract

Findings

31 226 patients were exposed; 21 395 (69%) met all inclusion criteria, including 4916 in the reference group, 5178 in the UV group, 5438 in the bleach group, and 5863 in the bleach and UV group. 115 patients had the primary outcome during 22 426 exposure days in the reference group (51·3 per 10 000 exposure days). The incidence of target organisms among exposed patients was significantly lower after adding UV to standard cleaning strategies (n=76; 33·9 cases per 10 000 exposure days; relative risk [RR] 0·70, 95% CI 0·50–0·98; p=0·036). The primary outcome was not statistically lower with bleach (n=101; 41·6 cases per 10 000 exposure days; RR 0·85, 95% CI 0·69–1·04; p=0·116), or bleach and UV (n=131; 45·6 cases per 10 000 exposure days; RR 0·91, 95% CI 0·76–1·09; p=0·303) among exposed patients. Similarly, the incidence of C difficile infection among exposed patients was not changed after adding UV to cleaning with bleach (n=38 vs 36; 30·4 cases vs 31·6 cases per 10 000 exposure days; RR 1·0, 95% CI 0·57–1·75; p=0·997).

The BETR-D study was supported by the CDC

 

Cdiffradio.com

Cdiffradio.com

 

 

 

Listen to Deverick J. Anderson, MD, MPH, FIDSA, FSHEA discuss UV Intervention Addressing C. difficile and Other Pathogens   July 2016

https://www.voiceamerica.com/episode/94128/uv-intervention-addressing-c-difficile-and-other-pathogens

 

 

*PLEASE NOTE – The C Diff Foundation does not endorse any products, medications,  and/or clinical study in progress. All website postings are strictly for informational purposes only.