Category Archives: CDC Report Updates

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publish the 2018 National & State Healthcare Associated Infection Progress Report

The CDC published the 2018 National and State Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) Progress Report showing significant progress nationally  in reducing several hospital-acquired infections and highlighting that prevention of these infections is possible. CDC’s HAI Progress Report is a snapshot of how each state and the country are doing in eliminating the infections outlined in the HAI National Action Plan.

 

Using data from CDC’s National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN), the 2018 HAI Progress Report shows the following reductions have been achieved nationally among acute care hospitals (2017 – 2018):

  • About 9% decrease in central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs)
  • About 8% decrease in catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs)
  • No significant changes in ventilator-associated events (VAEs)
  • No significant changes in surgical site infections (SSIs) related to the 10 procedures tracked in the report
  • No significant changes in hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections
  • About 12% decrease in hospital-onset C. difficile infections

 Each day, approximately one in 31 U.S. patients have at least one infection in association with his or her hospital care, underscoring the need for improvements in patient care practices in U.S. healthcare facilities. While much progress has been made, more needs to be done to prevent healthcare-associated infections in a variety of settings. Ongoing collaboration between public health, healthcare professionals, and other partners is critical to ensuring patient safety.

 Additionally, the HAI Progress Report data are now available in CDC’s new Antibiotic Resistance & Patient Safety Portal (AR&PSP), an interactive web-based application that was created to innovatively display data collected through CDC’s NHSN and other sources.  We hope you’ll use the AR&PSP to view enhanced data visualizations on Antibiotic Resistance, Use, and Stewardship datasets as well as HAI data for the nation and states.

Early Results From the CDC Prevention’s Emerging Infections Program shows a decline in Clostridium difficile Infections from 2011 to 2014

The early results from the CDC’s Prevention’s Emerging Infections Program show prevalence steadily increased from 2000 to 2010 but decreased from 2011 to 2014, which is around the time antimicrobial stewardship programs were being introduced because of increased awareness of the disease. For example, the VA introduced their program in 2012.

 

Clostridium difficile rates are dropping for the first time in a decade in healthcare settings, and it’s likely due to better cleaning and antibiotic prescribing policies, authorities say.

The rates for national healthcare incidence of the disease may be decreasing anywhere from 9% to 15%, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expert said in an NPR report.

Clostridium difficile rates are dropping for the first time in a decade in healthcare settings, and it’s likely due to better cleaning and antibiotic prescribing policies, authorities say.

The rates for national healthcare incidence of the disease may be decreasing anywhere from 9% to 15%, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expert said  in an NPR report.

The decreased rates may be credited to an increase in antimicrobial stewardship programs.

The programs restrict unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions, in addition to implementing stricter cleaning and infection control protocols. C. diff does not respond to conventional cleaning methods.

“It was estimated that C. diff infection was the most commonly reported infection [acquired in healthcare settings] nationally,” said Alice Guh, M.D., medical officer at the CDC. “That generated a lot of awareness.”

That’s three times what it was in 2000.

In nursing homes, 20% to 50% of residents can be colonized with the disease at a time, medical experts note.

To read article in its entirety click on the following link

http://www.mcknights.com/news/c-diff-rates-in-healthcare-settings-drop-for-first-time-in-a-decade/article/672543/

Clostidium difficile Most Recent Research Discussed By ASM and Dr. Alice Guh, MD, MPH of the CDC

Clostridium difficile is an increasingly important problem being faced by clinical microbiologists. From 1993 to 2009, incidence of C. difficile increased fourfold (85,700 cases increased to 336,600 cases) in the United States. Because of this, it has become a significant area of research, as researchers search for better antimicrobial therapies, diagnostic assays, and prevention tactics.   ASM recently invited Alice Guh, MD, MPH, of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to present the most recent C. difficile research as part of the Hot Topics in Clinical Microbiology series*. In her presentation, ‘Update on Clostridium difficile Infection’, Guh first describes the changing epidemiology of C. difficile infections (CDI), updating the data from the CDC’s Emerging Infections Program (EIP) and their long-term surveillance of CDI within the United States.

Guh further reviews current CDI diagnostic testing and its associated challenges. She highlights the benefits and downfalls of traditional enzyme immunoassay to detect C. difficile toxins compared to the nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) first put to widespread use in 2009.

Finally, Guh describes the role of asymptomatic carriers in C. difficile transmission. Her review of the literature presents best practices to trace transmission from asymptomatic carriers as well as suggested strategies to stop this transmission.

To read the article in its entirety please click on the following link:

https://www.asm.org/index.php/clinmicro-blog/item/6264-hot-topics-in-clinical-microbiology-clostridium-difficile

 

Antibiotic Resistance IS A Serious Global Health Concern

C.diff. Treatments

A Nevada woman has died from an infection resistant to all available antibiotics in the United States, public health officials report.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the woman’s condition was deemed incurable after being tested against 26 different antibiotics.

Though this isn’t the first case of pan-resistant bacteria in the U.S., at this time it is still uncommon. Still, experts note that antibiotic resistance is a growing health concern globally and call the newly reported case “a wake up call.”

“This is the latest reminder that yes, antibiotic resistance is real,” Dr. James Johnson, a professor specializing in infectious diseases at the University of Minnesota Medical School, told CBS News. “This is not some future, fantasized armageddon threat that maybe will happen after our lifetime. This is now, it’s real, and it’s here.”

According to the report, the woman from Washoe County was in her 70s and had recently returned to America after an extended trip to India. She had been hospitalized there several times before being admitted to an acute care hospital in Nevada in mid-August.

Doctors discovered the woman was infected with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), which is a family of germs that CDC director Dr. Tom Frieden has called “nightmare bacteria” due to the danger it poses for spreading antibiotic resistance.

The woman had a specific type of CRE, called Klebsiella pneumoniae, which can lead to a number of illnesses, including pneumonia, blood stream infections, and meningitis. In early September, she developed septic shock and died.

The authors of the report say the case highlights the need for doctors and hospitals to ask incoming patients about recent travel and if they have been hospitalized elsewhere.

Other experts say it underscores the need for the medical community, the government and the public to take antibiotic resistance more seriously.

According to the CDC, at least two million people become infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria each year, and at least 23,000 die as a direct result of these infections.

The World Health Organization calls antibiotic resistance “one of the biggest threats to global health.”

A grim report released last year suggests that if bacteria keep evolving at the current rate, by 2050, superbugs will kill 10 million people a year.

While scientists are working to develop new antibiotics, that takes time, and experts encourage doctors and the public to focus on prevention efforts.

One of the most important ways to prevent antibiotic resistance is to only take antibiotics only when they’re necessary.

“Drug resistance like this [case] generally develops from too much exposure to antibiotics,” assistant professor of pediatrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and director of the Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship Program at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, told CBS News. “Every time you’re placed on an antibiotic it’s important to question if it’s absolutely necessary and what’s the shortest amount of time you can take this antibiotic for it to still be effective.”

Johnson notes that medical tourism – the practice of traveling to another country to obtain medical treatment, typically at lower cost – may no longer be worth the risk. “With this [antibiotic] resistance issue, the risk/benefit of this approach really changes and I think that people really need to be aware and seriously consider if it’s a good idea given the possibility of this kind of thing,” he said.

Frequent hand washing, particularly in healthcare settings, is also extremely important in preventing the spread of germs.

To read the article in its entirety please click on the link below to be redirected:

http://www.lasvegasnow.com/news/nevada-woman-died-from-superbug-resistant-to-all-available-antibiotics-in-us/640548775

#AntibioticResistance Global Awareness Week — Get Smart About Antibiotics November 14-20th

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#AntibioticResistance

November 14-20th , 2016

In recognition of Get Smart about Antibiotics Week; November 14th – 20th, 2016 — the C Diff Foundation is teaming up with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to participate in a number of social media events and we encourage everyone to participate.

On November 14th the CDC launched a Thunderclap campaign that resonated around the world with a powerful message to kick off the Get Smart About Antibiotics Week.

On November 18th the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control @ECDC_EU  is hosting an ALL-DAY GLOBAL TWITTER CHAT using hashtag #AntibioticResistance

CDC will be hosting part of this live Twitter chat on Friday, November 18th from 11a.m. – 1p.m. EDT @CDCgov and would love your organization to join us in the conversation.

CDC Director, Dr. Tom Frieden @DrFriedenCDC w2ill be Tweeting during the chat, and we hope that you will make plans to take part in this important conversation with antibiotic-resistance partners and experts worldwide.

The Get Smart About Antibiotics Week 2016 observance marks the second annual World Antibiotic Awareness Week, which coincides with European Antibiotic-Awareness Day, Canada Antibiotic Awareness Week, and other similar observances across the world.

There are exceptional opportunities to raise awareness of the threat of antibiotic-resistance and the importance of preserving the power of antibiotics.  With that in mind, please promote your organization’s antibiotic resistance and stewardship materials and resources during the Twitter chat on Friday, November 18th.

Super-bugs Capture Attention As A Worldwide Health Threat

About 2 million Americans catch drug-resistant infections each year, and 23,000 die, according to the CDC.

As superbugs capture attention as a worldwide health threat, Washington University will be part of a national campaign against drug-resistant bacteria with a $2 million federal grant. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention awarded $14 million to 25 medical schools and other organizations for research into how microorganisms in the body, known as the microbiome, can track and prevent infections by outsider, drug-resistant germs.

“Understanding the role the microbiome plays in antibiotic-resistant infections is necessary to protect the public’s health,” Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC director, said in a statement. “We think it is key to innovative approaches to combat antibiotic resistance, protect patients, and improve antibiotic use.”

The microbiome includes “good” bacteria and other beneficial organisms that live in the skin and in the digestive and respiratory tracts. Antibiotics that are supposed to fight “bad” bacteria can disrupt the natural habitat by unbalancing the good and bad. Then drug-resistant bacteria can take over and create an environment for out-of-control bugs, including methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and clostridium difficile (C. diff.).

Overexposure to antibiotics has been blamed for the rise in superbugs, with the CDC estimating that one in three antibiotic prescriptions is unnecessary.

The research project will look at how early exposure to antibiotics affects the development of the microbiome and whether there are better ways to protect the microbiome.

Four teams of researchers at Washington University were named to the local project:

  • Dr. Jeffrey Henderson will lead a team working to identify how diet and metabolism interact with the gut microbiome in a study to combat C. diff. intestinal infections.
  • A team led by Gautam Dantas will study the long-term effects of antibiotic therapy in premature infants and how their digestive microbiomes are affected.
  • Dr. Jennie Kwon will study antibiotics and the microbiome as it relates to pneumonia.
  • Dr. Brian Gage will help look at hemorrhages linked to the use of blood thinners.

The United Nations General Assembly focused on superbugs — in a rare discussion of health issues. The meeting comes after a new superbug resistant to last-resort antibiotics infected a Pennsylvania woman over the summer, and a resistant strain of E. coli was recently found in a 2-year-old Connecticut girl.

The CDC recommends increased testing for the superbug gene among certain types of E. coli bacteria that show resistance to the powerful antibiotic colistin. The gene spreads readily among bacteria, and it could make these multi-drug-resistant strains almost impossible to treat.

A cluster of gonorrhea infections in Hawaii has shown resistance to all treatments. Doctors are increasingly worried that the common sexually transmitted disease is gaining strength as one of the most urgent superbug threats. If untreated, the disease can lead to infertility.

To read article in its entirety click on the following link:

http://www.stltoday.com/lifestyles/health-med-fit/health/antibiotic-resistance-focus-of-washington-university-and-national-research-project/article_b192afec-7dbe-59b8-8e06-5e64b7d8795c.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Awards Research Contract To Synthetic Biologics For Microbiome Assessment and Approaches To Better Combat Antibiotic Resistance

Synthetic Biologics, Inc. www.syntheticbiologics.com (PRNewsFoto/Synthetic Biologics, Inc.)

“To protect people, their microbiomes, and the effectiveness of antibiotics, this project is an example of applied research that has the potential to produce innovative public health approaches to better combat antibiotic resistance.”

Synthetic Biologics, Inc.  a clinical stage company focused on developing therapeutics to protect the gut microbiome while targeting pathogen-specific diseases, announced today it has been awarded a contract by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The award will support research conducted during the Company’s ongoing randomized, placebo-controlled Phase 2b proof-of-concept clinical study of SYN-004 (ribaxamase), designed to protect the gut microbiome from the unintended effects of certain commonly used intravenous (IV) beta-lactam antibiotics for the prevention of C. difficile infection (CDI), antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms.

“Antibiotics are life-saving medicines, but they also can disrupt a person’s microbiome and increase the risk for drug-resistant infections,” said Dr. Clifford McDonald, Associate Director of Science for CDC’s Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion. “To protect people, their microbiomes, and the effectiveness of antibiotics, this project is an example of applied research that has the potential to produce innovative public health approaches to better combat antibiotic resistance.”

The contract, awarded through the CDC’s Advanced and Innovative Solutions to Improve Public Health Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) 2016-N-17812, will support CDC’s efforts to assess how selective pressure from IV antibiotics may lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in the gut microbiome. The funding will also support research to evaluate ribaxamase’s ability to reduce selective pressure associated with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms in the gut microbiomes of patients enrolled in the Company’s ongoing Phase 2b clinical trial. The Company will examine DNA isolated from longitudinal samples obtained during the clinical trial and look for changes to the patient’s gut resistome, specifically examining for alterations in the presence and/or abundance of antibiotic resistance genes.

“Synthetic Biologics is proud to have the support of the U.S. Government in its efforts to study the role of antibiotics in mediating resistance in the gut microbiome,” said Jeffrey Riley, President and Chief Executive Officer. “Ribaxamase’s strategy of degrading certain IV beta-lactam antibiotics before they are excreted into the GI tract has the potential to protect the gut microbiome from disruption by these antibiotics without inhibiting their ability to fight primary infections as well as mitigate conditions conducive to antibiotic-resistance development. We look forward to our collaboration with CDC and to furthering their initiative to assess and address rising global concerns for the proliferation of antibiotic resistance.”

 

To read the article in its entirety click on the following link:

http://ir.syntheticbiologics.com/press-releases/detail/221