Tag Archives: Clostridioides difficile Infection

First Isolation of C.diff. PCR Ribotype 027 and Epidemiological Research of CDI in Hospitalized Adults In Tongji Hospital, Central China


Author Information: Zhou Y1, Mao L2, Yu J2, Lin Q2, Luo Y2, Zhu X3, Sun Z4.


Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an emerging healthcare problem in the world. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic epidemiological research of CDI in Tongji hospital, the central of China.


Stool samples from hospitalized adults suspected of CDI were enrolled. The diagnosis of CDI were based on the combination of clinical symptoms and laboratory results. Clinical features of CDI and non-CDI patients were compared by appropriate statistical tests to determine the risk factors of CDI. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was employed for molecular epidemiological analysis. Susceptibility testing and relevant antimicrobial agent resistance genes were performed as well.


From June 2016 to September 2017, 839 hospitalized adults were enrolled. Among them, 107 (12.8%, 107/839) patients were C. difficile culture positive, and 73 (8.7%, 73/839) were infected with toxigenic C. difficile (TCD), with tcdA + tcdB+ strains accounting for 90.4% (66/73) and tcdA-tcdB+ for 9.6% (7/73). Meanwhile, two TCD strains were binary toxin positive and one of them was finally identified as CD027. Severe symptoms were observed in these two cases. Multivariate analysis indicated antibiotic exposure (p = 0.001, OR = 5.035) and kidney disease (p = 0.015, OR = 8.329) significantly increased the risk of CDI. Phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated 21 different STs, including one new ST (ST467); and the most dominant type was ST54 (35.6%, 26/73). Multidrug-resistant (MDR) TCD were 53.4% (39/73); resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and clindamycin were > 50%. Other antibiotics showed relative efficiency and all strains were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. All moxifloxacin-resistant isolates carried a mutation in GyrA (Thr82 → Ile), with one both having mutation in GyrB (Ser366 → Ala).


Knowledge of epidemiological information for CDI is limited in China. Our finding indicated tcdA + tcdB+ C. difficile strains were the dominant for CDI in our hospital. Significant risk factors for CDI in our setting appeared to be antibiotic exposure and kidney disease. Metronidazole and vancomycin were still effective for CDI. Although no outbreak was observed, the first isolation of CD027 in center China implied the potential spread of this hypervirulent clone. Further studies are needed to enhance our understanding of the epidemiology of CDI in China.

Source:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30845918?dopt=Abstract&utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter

First Time Clostridioides difficile Infection Study Reveals Correlation Between Antibiotic Use and CDI Utilizing Data From 2006-2012

ABSTRACT :   Association between Antibiotic Use and Hospital-Onset Clostridioides difficile Infection in U.S. Acute Care Hospitals, 2006-2012: an Ecologic Analysis

“> Sophia V Kazakova, M.D., M.P.H, Ph.D James Baggs, Ph.D L Clifford McDonald, M.D Sarah H Yi, Ph.D Kelly M Hatfield, M.S.P.H Alice Guh, M.D., M.P.H Sujan C Reddy, M.D., M.Sc John A Jernigan, M.D., M.S

Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciz169, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz169
01 March 2019
Article history



Unnecessary antibiotic use (AU) contributes to increased rates of Clostridioides difficile Infection (CDI). The impact of antibiotic restriction on hospital-onset CDI (HO-CDI) has not been assessed in a large group of U.S. acute care hospitals (ACHs).


We examined cross-sectional and temporal associations between rates of hospital-level AU and HO-CDI using data from 549 ACHs. HO-CDI, a discharge with a secondary ICD-9-CM for CDI (008.45) and treatment with metronidazole or oral vancomycin ≥ 3 days after admission. Analyses were performed using multivariable generalized estimating equation models adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics.


During 2006-2012, the unadjusted annual rates of HO-CDI and total AU were 7.3 per 10,000 patient-days (PD) (95% CI: 7.1-7.5) and 811 days of therapy (DOT)/1,000 PD (95% CI: 803-820), respectively. In the cross-sectional analysis, for every 50 DOT/1,000 PD increase in total AU, there was a 4.4% increase in HO-CDI.

For every 10 DOT/1,000 PD increase in use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins or carbapenems there was a 2.1% and 2.9% increase in HO-CDI, respectively. In the time-series analysis, the 6 ACHs with a ≥ 30% decrease in total AU had a 33% decrease in HO-CDI (rate ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.47-0.96); ACHs with a ≥ 20% decrease in fluoroquinolone or third- and fourth-generation cephalosporin use had a corresponding decrease in HO-CDI of 8% and 13%, respectively.


At an ecologic level, reductions in total AU, use of fluoroquinolones and third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins were each associated with decreased HO-CDI rates.

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