Tag Archives: CDC

Early Results From the CDC Prevention’s Emerging Infections Program shows a decline in Clostridium difficile Infections from 2011 to 2014

The early results from the CDC’s Prevention’s Emerging Infections Program show prevalence steadily increased from 2000 to 2010 but decreased from 2011 to 2014, which is around the time antimicrobial stewardship programs were being introduced because of increased awareness of the disease. For example, the VA introduced their program in 2012.

 

Clostridium difficile rates are dropping for the first time in a decade in healthcare settings, and it’s likely due to better cleaning and antibiotic prescribing policies, authorities say.

The rates for national healthcare incidence of the disease may be decreasing anywhere from 9% to 15%, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expert said in an NPR report.

Clostridium difficile rates are dropping for the first time in a decade in healthcare settings, and it’s likely due to better cleaning and antibiotic prescribing policies, authorities say.

The rates for national healthcare incidence of the disease may be decreasing anywhere from 9% to 15%, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expert said  in an NPR report.

The decreased rates may be credited to an increase in antimicrobial stewardship programs.

The programs restrict unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions, in addition to implementing stricter cleaning and infection control protocols. C. diff does not respond to conventional cleaning methods.

“It was estimated that C. diff infection was the most commonly reported infection [acquired in healthcare settings] nationally,” said Alice Guh, M.D., medical officer at the CDC. “That generated a lot of awareness.”

That’s three times what it was in 2000.

In nursing homes, 20% to 50% of residents can be colonized with the disease at a time, medical experts note.

To read article in its entirety click on the following link

http://www.mcknights.com/news/c-diff-rates-in-healthcare-settings-drop-for-first-time-in-a-decade/article/672543/

Contagion Live Infectious Diseases Today Report 2017 SHEA’s Spring Conference

for Read the Article In Its Entirety Please Click On the Following Link:

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) continue to plague hospitals and long-term care facilities across the country, although, a recent report from shows that strategies to prevent these infections have made progress in decreasing their incidence since 2010. Still, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has stated that a least one healthcare-associated infection is reported in about one in 25 hospitals on any given day.

When it comes to keeping up on the latest news regarding these harmful infections, the newest strategies being used to prevent them, antimicrobial stewardship efforts, and treating infections caused by organisms that have managed to develop resistance to current antibiotics, the annual Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Spring Conference is a gold mine packed full of information from key opinion leaders in the field, and Contagion® will be reporting on the conference for the second year in a row.

Since our inception in February 2016, Contagion® has kept readers current on new findings pertaining to healthcare-associated infections. Two of the big culprits that are most commonly behind these harmful and costly infections are Clostridium difficile and Staphylococcus aureus.

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At last year’s SHEA Conference, we interviewed Robin Jump, MD, PhD, about the burden of C. difficile in the hospital setting and up-and-coming prevention methods that healthcare providers can use to help manage these infections.

– See more at: http://www.contagionlive.com/news/contagion-to-report-on-2017-shea-spring-conference#sthash.kxaDnByE.dpuf

Antibiotic Resistance IS A Serious Global Health Concern

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A Nevada woman has died from an infection resistant to all available antibiotics in the United States, public health officials report.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the woman’s condition was deemed incurable after being tested against 26 different antibiotics.

Though this isn’t the first case of pan-resistant bacteria in the U.S., at this time it is still uncommon. Still, experts note that antibiotic resistance is a growing health concern globally and call the newly reported case “a wake up call.”

“This is the latest reminder that yes, antibiotic resistance is real,” Dr. James Johnson, a professor specializing in infectious diseases at the University of Minnesota Medical School, told CBS News. “This is not some future, fantasized armageddon threat that maybe will happen after our lifetime. This is now, it’s real, and it’s here.”

According to the report, the woman from Washoe County was in her 70s and had recently returned to America after an extended trip to India. She had been hospitalized there several times before being admitted to an acute care hospital in Nevada in mid-August.

Doctors discovered the woman was infected with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), which is a family of germs that CDC director Dr. Tom Frieden has called “nightmare bacteria” due to the danger it poses for spreading antibiotic resistance.

The woman had a specific type of CRE, called Klebsiella pneumoniae, which can lead to a number of illnesses, including pneumonia, blood stream infections, and meningitis. In early September, she developed septic shock and died.

The authors of the report say the case highlights the need for doctors and hospitals to ask incoming patients about recent travel and if they have been hospitalized elsewhere.

Other experts say it underscores the need for the medical community, the government and the public to take antibiotic resistance more seriously.

According to the CDC, at least two million people become infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria each year, and at least 23,000 die as a direct result of these infections.

The World Health Organization calls antibiotic resistance “one of the biggest threats to global health.”

A grim report released last year suggests that if bacteria keep evolving at the current rate, by 2050, superbugs will kill 10 million people a year.

While scientists are working to develop new antibiotics, that takes time, and experts encourage doctors and the public to focus on prevention efforts.

One of the most important ways to prevent antibiotic resistance is to only take antibiotics only when they’re necessary.

“Drug resistance like this [case] generally develops from too much exposure to antibiotics,” assistant professor of pediatrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and director of the Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship Program at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, told CBS News. “Every time you’re placed on an antibiotic it’s important to question if it’s absolutely necessary and what’s the shortest amount of time you can take this antibiotic for it to still be effective.”

Johnson notes that medical tourism – the practice of traveling to another country to obtain medical treatment, typically at lower cost – may no longer be worth the risk. “With this [antibiotic] resistance issue, the risk/benefit of this approach really changes and I think that people really need to be aware and seriously consider if it’s a good idea given the possibility of this kind of thing,” he said.

Frequent hand washing, particularly in healthcare settings, is also extremely important in preventing the spread of germs.

To read the article in its entirety please click on the link below to be redirected:

http://www.lasvegasnow.com/news/nevada-woman-died-from-superbug-resistant-to-all-available-antibiotics-in-us/640548775

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Provides Updates On C. difficile Infection Management and Treatment

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According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Clostridium difficile infection (C. difficile) “has become the most common microbial cause of healthcare-associated infections in U.S. hospitals and costs up to $4.8 billion each year in excess health care costs for acute care facilities alone.”

Statistics provided by the CDC suggest that C. difficile cause nearly 500,000 infections in patients in the US annually.

In one study noted by the CDC, among infected patients, nearly 29,000 died within 30 days of being diagnosed, and more than half of those deaths (15,000) were directly attributable to C. difficile infection.

With C. difficile infection prevention being declared a national priority by the CDC, researchers, public health officials, infectious disease specialists, and others continue to research more effective ways to combat this microbe. Below, we’ve collected links and information on several recent developments.

THE GOOD NEWS
The Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) recently -hospital-stewardship-lowers-antibiotic-use-infections”>reported some good news about the effectiveness of antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) in reducing antibiotic usage, especially among patients in the intensive care unit.

Citing the results of a meta-analysis published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, the CIDRAP report noted that, following the implementation of an ASP, “hospital antimicrobial consumption across all studies declined by 19.1%, and antibiotic costs fell by 33.9%. Though a modest decrease of 12.1% in antimicrobial use occurred in general medical wards, antimicrobial use in ICUs fell by 39.5% across the four studies that looked at that parameter.”

The meta-analysis also found that ASPs were effective in curbing the use of non-antibiotic therapies. In the six studies that also monitored antifungal prescription rates, the authors reported a 39.1% decline after ASP initiation.

The use of third- and fourth generation antibiotics (such as cephalosporins, vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, imipenem, meropenem, and fluoroquinolones) declined by 26.6% in facilities that implemented an ASP.

The meta-analysis found that bacteria infection rates declined 4.5% in the studies that measured clinical outcomes, and length of hospital stay fell by nearly 9% in studies that measured that metric.

However, the CIDRAP report noted that ASP implementation was not “associated with declining risks for Clostridium difficile (C diff) infections.” The authors of the meta-analysis did note that, in three studies that evaluated C difficile rates, “significant publication bias favored studies that reported ASPs’ negative effects.”

Let’s just get right to the heart of this report from Reuters:

“Fifteen years after the U.S. government declared antibiotic-resistant infections to be a grave threat to public health, a Reuters investigation has found that infection-related deaths are going uncounted, hindering the nation’s ability to fight a scourge that exacts a significant human and financial toll. Even when recorded, tens of thousands of deaths from drug-resistant infections – as well as many more infections that sicken but don’t kill people – go uncounted because federal and state agencies are doing a poor job of tracking them.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the go-to national public health monitor, and state health departments lack the political, legal and financial wherewithal to impose rigorous surveillance.”

The report goes on to outline how incomplete, “patchwork” infection reporting requirements for hospitals, and lax requirements in many states regarding physicians’ responsibilities when filling out death certificates, have led to deaths caused by (or at the very least associated with) MRSA and other drug-resistant pathogens to be “grossly under-reported.”

For example, according to Reuters, only 17 states require notification of C. difficile infections. Only two of the so-called “superbug” infections (MRSA bacteremia and C. difficile) are required to be reported to the CDC’s National Healthcare Safety Network surveillance program.

As they say, read the whole thing.

The authors of an article published in Clinical Microbiology and Infection  reported on a study that compared treatment with tigecycline to standard therapy in adult patients with severe C. difficile infection (sCDI).

The retrospective cohort study compared outcomes in patients with sCDI who received tigecycline alone to outcomes in patients who received standard oral vancomycin combined with intravenous metronidazole.

The primary study outcome was clinical recovery (as determined by European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases guidelines); secondary outcomes were “in-hospital and 90-day all-cause mortality and relapse, colectomy and complication rates.”

A total of 90 patients with sCDI were treated (45 in each group). Patients treated with tigecycline monotherapy tended to do better in terms of cure rate, complicated disease, and CDI sepsis.

The authors reported that, compared to the group that received standard therapy, the tigecycline group had “significantly better outcomes of clinical cure (34/45, 75.6% vs. 24/45, 53.3%; p=0.02), less complicated disease course (13/45, 28.9% vs. 24/45, 53.3%; p=0.02) and less CDI sepsis (7/45, 15.6% vs. 18/45, 40.0%; p=0.009).”

Rates of mortality, disease relapse, and other measures were similar between the groups.

These results led the researchers to conclude that “tigecycline might be considered as a potential candidate for therapeutic usage in cases of sCDI refractory to standard treatment.”

Our good friends at Contagion Live recently reported on a study that has uncovered how the C. difficile bacteria produces toxins, which could aid the development of nonantibiotic drugs to fight C. difficile infection.

According to Contagion Live, C. difficile produces two toxins, toxin A and toxin B, that “cause life-threatening diarrhea as well as pseudomembranous colitis, toxic megacolon, perforations in the colon, sepsis and rarely death.”

Researchers at the University of Texas found that strains of C. difficile with a mutation in a particular Agr locus in their genome could not produce the toxins.

“Identifying a pathway responsible for activating the production of the toxins… opens up a unique therapeutic target for the development of a novel nonantibiotic therapy for C. difficile infections,” said the study authors.

The Contagion Live article includes a quote from author Charles Darkoh, PhD, on the potential implications of these findings.

“By crippling their toxin-making machinery, C. diff cannot make toxins and thus cannot cause disease. My laboratory is already working on this and was awarded a 5-year National Institutes of Health grant to investigate and develop an oral compound we have identified that inactivate the toxins and block the toxin-making machinery of C. diff by targeting this pathway,” he said.

 

 

To read article in its entirety click on the link below:

 http://www.hcplive.com/medical-news/latest-news-and-updates-on-c-difficile-infection-management-and-treatment/P-4#sthash.iDm6FgAP.dpuf

 

Learn More About The Signs and Symptoms Of Sepsis With The CDC; It’s A Race Against Time

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Saving patients from sepsis is a race against time

CDC calls sepsis a medical emergency; encourages prompt action for prevention, early recognition

Sepsis is caused by the body’s overwhelming and life-threatening response to an infection and requires rapid intervention. It begins outside of the hospital for nearly 80 percent of patients. According to a new Vital Signs report released by CDC, about 7 in 10 patients with sepsis had used health care services recently or had chronic diseases that required frequent medical care. These represent opportunities for healthcare providers to prevent, recognize, and treat sepsis long before it can cause life-threatening illness or death.

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“When sepsis occurs, it should be treated as a medical emergency,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, M.D., M.P.H. “Doctors and nurses can prevent sepsis and also the devastating effects of sepsis, and patients and families can watch for sepsis and ask, ‘could this be sepsis?’”   

Certain people with an infection are more likely to get sepsis, including people age 65 years or older, infants less than 1 year old, people who have weakened immune systems, and people who have chronic medical conditions (such as diabetes). While much less common, even healthy children and adults can develop sepsis from an infection, especially when not recognized early. The signs and symptoms of sepsis include: shivering, fever, or feeling very cold; extreme pain or discomfort; clammy or sweaty skin; confusion or disorientation; shortness of breath and a high heart rate.

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According to the Vital Signs report, infections of the lung, urinary tract, skin, and gut most often led to sepsis. In most cases, the germ that caused the infection leading to sepsis was not identified. When identified, the most common germs leading to sepsis were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and some types of Streptococcus.

 

Health care providers, patients and their family members can work as a team to prevent sepsis.

Health care providers play a critical role in protecting patients from infections that can lead to sepsis and recognizing sepsis early. Health care providers can:

·         Prevent infections. Follow infection control requirements (such as handwashing) and ensure patients to get recommended vaccines (e.g., flu and pneumococcal).

·         Educate patients and their families. Stress the need to prevent infections, manage chronic conditions, and, if an infection is not improving, promptly seek care. Don’t delay.

·         Think sepsis. Know the signs and symptoms to identify and treat patients earlier.

·         Act fast. If sepsis is suspected, order tests to help determine if an infection is present, where it is, and what caused it. Start antibiotics and other recommended medical care immediately.

·         Reassess patient management. Check patient progress frequently. Reassess antibiotic therapy 24-48 hours or sooner to change therapy as needed. Determine whether the type of antibiotics, dose, and duration are correct.

CDC is working on five key areas related to sepsis:

·         Increasing sepsis awareness by engaging clinical professional organizations and patient advocates.

·         Aligning infection prevention, chronic disease management, and appropriate antibiotic use to promote early recognition of sepsis.

·         Studying risk factors for sepsis that can guide focused prevention and early recognition.

·         Developing tracking for sepsis to measure impact of successful interventions.

·         Preventing infections that may lead to sepsis by promoting vaccination programs, chronic disease management, infection prevention, and appropriate antibiotic use.

To read the entire Vital Signs report visit: www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/sepsis.

For more information on sepsis and CDC’s work visit: www.cdc.gov/sepsis.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

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CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety and security. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, stem from human error or deliberate attack, CDC is committed to respond to America’s most pressing health challenges.

 

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Taking Aim at Superbugs and A Review Of the Latest CDC Vital Signs Report With Guest Clifford McDonald, MD Of the CDC

Listen In On Tuesday, March 22nd

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To access the live broadcast and program archives,
C. diff. Spores and More  Global Broadcasting Network
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C. diff. Spores and More,” Global Broadcasting Network – innovative and educational interactive healthcare talk radio program discusses

“Taking aim at “super-bugs” and the latest CDC Vital Signs Report results”

With Our Guest, Dr. Clifford McDonald, MD, — Senior Advisor for Science and Integrity Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion at the CDC

Tuesday, March 22nd at the following times

10 a.m. Pacific Time
11 a.m. Mountain Time 
12 p.m. Central Time  
1 p.m. Eastern Time

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sounds the alarm on the danger of modern medicine returning to a time when simple infections were often fatal. As the latest Vital Signs Report shows, much progress has been made in our hospitals and healthcare facilities to protect patients from healthcare-associated infections. But, more work needs to be done, because many of these infections are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria which are difficult, if not impossible to treat. The CDC believes clinicians are key to national progress in preventing infections. They have the power to change the direction of antibiotic resistance each and every time they care for their patients. It requires taking the appropriate steps every time.

We are in a race to slow resistance, and we can’t afford to let the “superbugs” outpace us, especially in healthcare settings.

Cliff-McDonald

Dr. McDonald graduated from Northwestern University Medical School, completed his Internal Medicine Residency at Michigan State University, and an Infectious Diseases Fellowship at the University of South Alabama, following which he completed a fellowship in Medical Microbiology at Duke University. Past positions have included Associate Investigator at the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan and Assistant Professor in the Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of Louisville. Dr. McDonald is a former officer in the Epidemic Intelligence Service and former Chief of the Prevention and Response Branch in the Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion at the CDC where he currently serves as Senior Advisor for Science and Integrity in the same division. He is the author or co-author of over 100 peer-reviewed publications with his main interests in the epidemiology/prevention of HAI’s, especially Clostridium difficile infections, and prevention of antimicrobial resistance.

C. diff. Spores and More™  Global Broadcasting Network –  producing educational programs dedicated to  C. difficile Infections and more —  brought to you by VoiceAmerica and sponsored by Clorox Healthcare

Using Antibiotics Wisely, How Everyone Can Help In the Fight Against Antibiotic Resistance Worldwide

Did you have the opportunity to listen  to the live broadcast on “C. diff. Spores and More Global Broadcasting Network”  on Tuesday, February 9th, 2016 with guests Dr. Lori Hicks and Dr. Arjun Srinivasan from  the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ?

Dr. Hicks and Dr. Srinivasan discussed how to use antibiotics wisely and how everyone can help in the fight against antibiotic-resistance.

This important  information  is now available to you on demand by clicking directly on the logo below

 

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For additional information on Inpatient Antibiotic Stewardship please click on the following link:

http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/healthcare/inpatient-stewardship.html

 

To access the CDC Get Smart Program, please click on the following link to be redirected:

http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/index.html

 

 

C. diff. Spores and More” programming is brought to you by VoiceAmerica  and sponsored by Clorox Healthcare

For more information please visit the C. diff. Spores and More program page:

https://cdifffoundation.org/c-diff-radio/