Tag Archives: Clostridium difficile nutrition

Frozen Yogurt Recipe To Make At Home

cdiffYogurt2

A message from the Registered Dietician 

With the warmer weather season upon us…..a cup of refreshing homemade frozen yogurt is not only enjoyable but is beneficial.

Natural probiotics should be ingested at the end of a meal; on a full stomach. This is due to the Ph balance of the G.I. system making it a desirable time for the live cultures to survive and be the most beneficial to the gastrointestinal system.

* Note: When taking Antibiotics it is best to wait two hours after ingesting probiotics to obtain the maximum benefits of the probiotics.
Frozen Yogurt Recipe : 6 ounces fresh or frozen berries stirred into 16 ounces vanilla yogurt then placed into a container recommended for freezing and enjoy.   For extra caloric value:  Add a 5 ounce package of shortbread cookies crushed well and then stir into the mixture before freezing.

C. difficile infections With Challenging Nutritional Intake Imbalances; Malnutrition

NurseCadeceus

A C. difficile infection effects the gastrointestinal system.

What Is the Gastrointestinal System?
The human gastrointestinal system or GI tract, is an organ system responsible for consuming and digesting food, absorbing nutrients, and expelling waste (fecal matter).  The whole digestive tract is about nine meters (30 feet) in length. (1)

  1. Food enters through the mouth and is broken down by saliva and the act of chewing. It passes through the esophagus until it reaches the stomach.
  2. The stomach uses acids and enzymes to convert food into a semi-liquid state called chyme. The stomach then expels the chyme into the small intestine.
  3. The small intestine is the portal for all nutrients to enter into the bloodstream. Crucial digestive enzymes and hormones secreted from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder break down the semi-liquid chyme into molecules small enough to be absorbed into the bloodstream.
  4. Any leftover food goes into the large intestine, where it is converted into solid waste with the help of bacteria. Water and salts are extracted from any undigested food. The end-product (fecal matter) is expelled through the rectum and anus.

Malnutrition may be broadly defined as nutritional imbalance.

More specifically, it has been defined by the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics as consisting of any two or more of the following:

  • Insufficient  intake
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of muscle mass
  • Loss of subcutaneous fat
  • Localized or generalized fluid accumulation that may mask weight loss
  • Diminished functional status as measured by hand-grip strength

(1) http://naturopathconnect.com

Patients who are nutritionally challenged and have subsequently restrict their diets to an excessive degree are at higher risk for micro-nutrient and macro-nutrient deficiency. Deficiencies can arise from altered nutrition and poor intake from many illnesses.

A Zinc deficiency may present with a rash that can resemble contact dermatitis or seborrheic dermatitis and can be best described as eczematous pink scaly plaques that may evolve into vesicular, bullous, pustular, or desquamative lesions. Patients with severe zinc deficiency will experience growth delay, mental slowing, poor wound healing, anemia, photophobia, hypogeusia, and anorexia. Zinc is an essential mineral required by the body for maintaining a sense of smell, keeping a healthy immune system, building proteins, triggering enzymes, and creating DNA. Zinc also helps the cells in your body communicate by functioning as a neurotransmitter. A deficiency in zinc can lead to stunted growth, diarrhea, impotence, hair loss, eye and skin lesions, impaired appetite, and depressed immunity. Conversely, consuming too much zinc can lead to nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and headaches in the short term, and can disrupt absorption of copper and iron in the long term. If you have a zinc deficiency, then animal foods are better sources of zinc than plant foods.  Main foods high in Zinc:  Lamb, Wheat-germ, Spinach, Pork, Chicken, Beans.

Vitamin C plays an important role in maintaining connective tissue by virtue of its effect on the hydroxylation of proline and lysine. Patients with scurvy are prone to easy bruising, hemorrhage, fatigue, weakness, and gingivitis. Treatment consists of oral repletion of vitamin C. Foods high in Vitamin C include bell peppers (yellow), dark leafy greens, kiwis, broccoli, berries, citrus fruits, tomatoes, peas, and papayas.

The elderly patients, and patients nutritionally challenged (e.g. C. diff. infections, IBS, Crohn’s, etc.) are at higher risks for developing protein engery malnutrition (PEM) as a consequence of several factors. One is from the inability to maintain adequate nutrition due to the symptoms created by  a C. difficile infection and other GI diagnosis.  Secondary is related to the loss of employment and wages resulting in the inability to acquire food and food products/supplements. Long-term poor nutrition can also result in poor oral health and dental problems which can also lead to difficulty in chewing.  There are many factors that can lead to malnutrition. * Discussing dietary challenges with a healthcare provider is important and asking for a dietary consult with a Registered Dietician is always helpful *  Protein is also essential for the healing of wounds. Accordingly, increasing this patient’s protein intake is a priority. A deficiency in protein leads to muscle atrophy, and impaired functioning of the human body in general. High protein foods include meat, fish, cheese, tofu, beans, eggs, lentils, yogurt, Not everybody needs the same amount of protein. (2) Protein servings of meat, poultry, or fish, should be the size and thickness of the palm of your hand, That’s about a 3-ounce portion. Meat eaters eat no more than two palm-sized servings of meat a day to get enough — but not too much — protein.  Patients with decreased kidney functions need to discuss dietary needs with their healthcare professional and referral/consult with a Registered Dietician for guidance.  To look at it another way, protein should take up no more than one-third of your plate at meals, whether it’s in a form you can drink or chew, Include small amounts of protein foods at every meal to spread your intake evenly throughout the day. (2)

(2) Wedmd.com

Malnutrition can also be diagnosed with a CT scan: A patient can be diagnosed with malnutrition from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with significant weight changes and altered bowel habits. In addition, the albumin level, if checked, will be low = malnutrition.

Physical findings that are associated with PEM (Protein – energy Malnutrition) include the following:

  • Decreased subcutaneous tissue: Areas that are most affected are the legs, arms, buttocks, and face
  • Edema: Areas that are most affected are the distal extremities and anasarca (generalized edema)
  • Oral changes: Cheilosis, angular stomatitis, and papillar atrophy
  • Abdominal findings: Abdominal distention secondary to poor abdominal musculature and hepatomegaly secondary to fatty infiltration
  • Skin changes: Dry, peeling skin with raw, exposed areas; hyperpigmented plaques over areas of trauma
  • Nail changes: Fissured or ridged nails
  • Hair changes: Thin, sparse, brittle hair that is easily pulled out

Protein Studies include:  Measures of protein nutritional status include levels of the following:

  • Serum albumin
  • Retinol-binding protein
  • Prealbumin
  • Transferrin
  • Creatinine
  • Blood urea nitrogen

* If a loved one or if you are nutritionally challenged at any time, from any illness, contact your healthcare provider as soon as possible and discuss the symptoms and complications associated with maintaining an adequate nutritional diet or hydration.  Clear liquid diets are ONLY for three days and Full Liquid diets are ONLY to be used during the direct healthcare provider supervision and frequent monitoring.

 

* The information provided on the website is for educational use only and not for physical or mental health assessment, diagnosis, or treatment for any illness or symptoms.  Please see disclaimer.  Always seek medical care and contact healthcare providers as soon as possible for full medical exams, diagnosis, and treatments. Thank you.

Nutrition; Eggs Are Good Food

EgEggsgs And Nutritional Information:

Eggs have been part of the human diet ever since ancient times, when early civilizations, such as Egyptians started domesticating wild fowls. Now, eggs are a mainstay in many people’s meals due to their outstanding nutritional content.

The protein in eggs is the highest-quality protein found in any food. Eggs also contain essential nutrients like vitamin B12, eye health-promoting antioxidants zeaxanthin and lutein, cancer-fighting amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan, and choline, which aids in fetal brain development.

The fact is that a lot of the seemingly healthy egg varieties you see in supermarkets are actually nothing more than an advertising trick.

One example is omega-3 eggs, or “nutrient-enhanced eggs,” which actually come from chickens that are given poor-quality sources of omega-3 fats that are already oxidized. They also perish much faster than non-omega-3 eggs.

In order to ensure the quality of your eggs, I urge you to keep an eye out for organic, pastured varieties from local farmers who allow their hens to forage freely outdoors.

  1. PROTEIN If you start your weekday with cereal or toast instead of eggs, here’s a wake-up call: Did you know eggs have 6 grams of high-quality protein? And did you know a protein-packed breakfast helps sustain mental and physical energy throughout the day? That’s good news, especially if you’re a body-building chess champion.
  2. GOT CHOLINE? Eggs are rich in choline, which is a weird word but it’s a “good weird” because choline promotes normal cell activity, liver function and the transportation of nutrients throughout the body. Think of it as a commuter train for vitamins and minerals.
  3. ZERO CARBS NO SUGAR Eggs contain zero carbs and no sugar. That means you can eat a well-rounded breakfast during the week without feeling round yourself.
  4. AMINO ACIDS Eggs have all 9 essential amino acids. Seems like a lot but remember – they ARE essential.
  5. MORE FOOD FOR THOUGHT Unlike most cereals and yogurt, eggs don’t come with a complicated, jam-packed ingredient list because they only contain one ingredient. It’s called “eggs.” And at 15¢ a serving, eggs are the least expensive source of high-quality protein.* That’s right, 15¢.
  6. NO GLUTEN? NO PROBLEM. Let’s not forget that eggs are naturally gluten-free. Always have been, always will be. And that’s awesome because there isn’t exactly a glut of gluten-free breakfast options.

Free-Range, Pasteurized, Cage-Free Organic… Do These Words Mean Anything?

You may have spotted these words on some egg cartons, which seem to convince and assure consumers that the products come from reliable, high-quality sources.

But in reality, these terms DO NOT guarantee the conditions in which the chickens are raised. For example, some “cage-free” hens are allowed to forage, but only in unpleasant environments, such as barren lots. Or they may have been fed an unnatural diet of grains and synthetic additives.

You may have also been enticed to buy eggs with smooth white shells, but this actually has no effect on the eggs’ nutrition value. In fact, if you want to find out the real nutritional value of your egg, I advise you to check the yolk. Dull, pale yellow yolks are a sure sign that the eggs are produced by caged hens raised in confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), and were not allowed to forage for their natural diet.

Eggs are good for……………………….

Weight management: The high-quality protein in eggs helps you to feel fuller longer and stay energized, which contributes to maintaining a healthy weight.1

Muscle strength and muscle-loss prevention: Research indicates that high-quality protein may help active adults build muscle strength and help prevent muscle loss in middle-aged and aging adults.2

Healthy pregnancy: Egg yolks are an excellent source of choline, an essential nutrient that contributes to fetal brain development and helps prevent birth defects. Two eggs provide about 250 milligrams of choline, or roughly half of the recommended daily intake for pregnant and breastfeeding women.3

Brain function: Choline also aids the brain function of adults by maintaining the structure of brain cell membranes, and is a key component of the neuro-transmitter that helps relay messages from the brain through nerves to the muscles.4

Eye health: Lutein and zeaxanthin, two antioxidants found in egg yolks, help prevent macular degeneration, a leading cause of age-related blindness. Though eggs contain a small amount of these two nutrients, research shows that the lutein from eggs may be more bioavailable than lutein from other food sources.5

For additional information and benefits of eggs, visit www.eggnutritioncenter.org

REFERENCES

1 Weigle DS, et al. 2005. A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr. 82:41-48.

2 Evans WJ. 2004. Protein Nutrition, Exercise and Aging. J Am Coll Nutr. 23(6)601S-609S.

3 Zeisel SH. Choline: Critical role during fetal development and dietary requirements in adults. Annu Rev Nutr, 2006; 26:229-50.

4 Moeller SM, et al. 2000. The Potential Role of Dietary Xanthophylls in Cataract and Age-Related Macular Degeneration. J Am Coll Nutr. 19(5):522S-527S.

5 Chung HY, et al. Lutein bioavailability is higher from lutein-enriched eggs than from supplements and spinach in men. J Nutr. 2004; 134:1887-1893.

 

Quick and Simple Recipe: Microwave Coffee Cup Scramble

Microwave Coffee Cup Scramble
For a quick and easy breakfast in less than 3 minutes, try this microwave egg scramble. Just add your favorite toppings & take it to go!
Prep Time: 1 minute
Cook Time: 1-1/2 minutes
Servings: 1 serving

Ingredients

2 EGGS
2 Tbsp. milk
2 Tbsp. shredded Cheddar cheese
Salt and pepper

Directions

Step 1 COAT 12-oz. microwave-safe coffee mug with cooking spray. ADD eggs and milk* (Optional) ; beat until blended.
Step 2 MICROWAVE on HIGH 45 seconds; stir. MICROWAVE until eggs are almost set, 30 to 45 seconds longer.
Step 3 TOP with cheese; season with salt and pepper.

 

references:

http://www.incredibleegg.org    http://www.eggnutritioncenter.org

C. difficile infection; Maintaining Nutrition

matzo-ball-soup

 

 

 

As we know those combating a C-Diff Infection deal with the major symptom; diarrhea. This can cause a person to lose large amounts of water, alter electrolytes, and loose minerals.  However, certain foods can help one to overcome the symptoms of diarrhea. It is important to drink clear liquids such as juices, decaffeinated tea, or sports drinks, gelatin, frozen ices, and water. Bland foods are also appropriate such as applesauce, bananas, canned soft fruits, crackers, eggs, mashed potatoes, pretzels, smooth nut butters, toast, white rice and especially soups.

* Please Note:  If an individual is unable to maintain adequate hydration and nutrition, contact the Physician and seek medical attention as soon as possible.  Dehydration can be life threatening *

Soups provide fluid, sodium, calories and vitamins. One soup that provides fluid replacement, protein, maintains nutrition, and is relatively easy to prepare is a simple matzoh ball soup.

Recipe: Matzoh Ball soup

2 quarts of salted water
3 eggs,
¼ cup of oil
Large dash each salt and pepper
1 cup of matzoh meal(approx)

Bring water to a boil. While you are waiting for water to heat combine eggs, oil, salt and pepper. Then mix in matzoh meal, a little at a time, until the mixture is thickened but still sticky. Matzoh meal absorbs lots of water, so wait 10 minutes or so to see if you need more. Aim for your batter to feel like modeling clay.

Wet your hands and roll batter into balls; for large balls, roll them into the size of a small egg. For smaller balls, aim for walnut-sized. Drop balls into the boiling water, then reduce heat and simmer for at least 30 minutes.

Makes approx 12 small matzoh balls.

 

April 2014: K. Factor, R.D., MS – Chairperson of Nutrition Wellness

What you can do while experiencing symptoms of diarrhea

WaterFruit

What can you do while experiencing symptoms of diarrhea?
Liquids
Drink plenty of liquids between meals to avoid dehydration. Water, broth, gelatin, ices, and sports drinks are all good choices.
Room temperature
Some people tolerate liquids at room temperature better than those served hot or cold.
Sugar-free foods
Avoid sugar-free foods when you have diarrhea. The sugar alcohols used to sweeten these foods, such as sorbitol and xylitol, can worsen diarrhea.
Dairy products
Do not consume dairy products when symptoms are most severe. Add low-fat or fat-free milk back into your diet slowly.
Small meals
Have small meals and snacks, rather than big meals.
Bland foods
It is recommended that you choose bland foods when you have diarrhea.
Good choices include:
  • Applesauce
  • Bananas
  • Canned soft fruits
  • Cooked hot cereals
  • Crackers
  • Eggs
  • Mashed potatoes
  • Pretzels
  • Smooth nut butters
  • Soup
  • Toast
  • White rice
Foods to avoid
Do not choose foods that are greasy, fried, or fatty. Do not add butter, oil, or other fats to your foods. Certain foods tend to cause discomfort for many patients, including:
  • Beets
  • Broccoli
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Cabbage
  • Carbonated beverages
  • Cauliflower
  • Corn
  • Dried beans
  • Dried fruit
  • Fried or fatty meats
  • Greens
  • High-fiber breads
  • High-fiber cereals
  • Nuts
  • Onions
  • Raw fruits (except bananas and melon)
  • Raw vegetables
  • Whole grains
  • Whole milk
Grains
Choose grains that contain less than 2 grams of fiber/serving.
* CLEAR LIQUID DIETS are only to be followed for three (3) days.  If adequate
nutrition or hydration can not be maintained, please contact the Physician and health
care professionals promptly and seek medical attention.
Meats, chicken, and fish
Select lean meats, chicken, and fish.
Yogurt
Patients with diarrhea caused by antibiotics may benefit form adding yogurt to their diet.
When should the physician be notified?
Call your doctor if you:
  • Have mucus, blood, or pus in your stools
  • Have diarrhea lasting longer than 2 to 3 days
  • Have not urinated in 12 hours
  • Have severe pain or abdominal cramping
  • Are vomiting and experiencing diarrhea at the same time
  • Have a chronic illness, such as diabetes
  • Have a high fever (more than 101º F)
  • Are pregnant
  • Experience rapid breathing, fever, or dizziness
  • If you have traveled to a foreign country, or have taken an antibiotic recently or in the past two/three months, or have developed diarrhea upon your return from any visit out of your immediate area.
Remember to:
  • Eat and drink whatever you think will work best for you
  • Frequent hand-washing breaks and for a minimum of twenty (20) seconds, before exiting a restroom, before/after eating, before/after entering a patients room, before/after wearing gloves during patient care, after changing diapers, after grooming and handling pets and Wash  hands often.
  • Eat and drink small portions, gradually increasing your diet as tolerated
 
References and recommended readings
Eating hints before, during, and after cancer treatment. National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute Web site. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/coping/eatinghints/page4#diarrhea. Accessed June 5, 2013.
Mayo Clinic staff. Diarrhea. Mayo Clinic Web site. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/diarrhea/DS00292. Accessed June 5, 2013.
US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. Diarrhea. MedlinePlus Web site. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003126.htm. Updated January 26, 2012. Accessed June 5, 2013.

The C Diff Foundation Welcomes Karen Factor, R.D. Chairperson of Dietary Nutrition

welcome1

 

 

 

We would like to take this opportunity to welcome Karen Factor, R.D., MBA to the

C Diff Foundation;  Chairperson of Dietary Nutrition.

Karen Factor,  a Registered Dietitian with the Duke Medical System, received her MBA in Dietetics in at the University of New Haven and completed her internship in Dietetics at

St. Raphael’s Hospital in New Haven, CT.

Karen has 25 years of experience in Food-service, Hospitals, Long-term care Facilities, Dialysis Centers, Public Health,a Provider for Blue Cross/Blue Shield and Consultant for Nutritional Weight Loss in NC.  She is a Certified Reviewer of Weight Loss Programs in North Carolina, a Breastfeeding Educator under Forsyth Memorial Hospital, and an RD Food Allergy Specialist under the PAC Registered Dietitian Consultant Training Program.

Karen’s background includes experience in caring for patients diagnosed with GERD, C, diff ,   Crohn’s Disease, and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).

Publications include:  Nutrition Articles for the East Carolina Public Health Association Newsletter, Abstracts and Manuscripts on Renal Nutrition for the University of Missouri Dialysis Conferences and the Renal Nutrition Forum Periodical.