Tag Archives: Nutrition

Gut Microbiome and Dietary Fiber Diet Influences Microbial Metabolism

In normal conditions, meal ingestion induces satiation and fullness which, depending on the type of foods ingested, individual sensitivity and reflex activity, may have a pleasurable dimension leading to digestive well-being. However, 84% of people with IBS experience digestive symptoms related to food intake, including abdominal pain, bloating and abdominal distension, which are not secondary to structural abnormalities in their digestive tract.

The study of factors that determine digestive sensations is currently an active area of research for scientists such as those at the University Hospital Vall d’Hebron in Barcelona, Spain.

A new cross-over, randomized study, led by Dr. Fernando Azpiroz from the Digestive System Research Unit at University Hospital Vall d’Hebron, elucidates how diet influences gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity, colon biomass and perception of digestive sensations in healthy individuals.

The authors administered a high-fat and low-residue diet (Western-type diet; 4.7 g fiber from food sources) versus a low-fat and high-residue diet (fiber-enriched Mediterranean diet; 54.2 g fiber from food sources) for two weeks in 20 healthy men after a period of two weeks on a balanced diet. Thus, all participants received both interventions, but the order in which they were received was randomized.

Although the two diet types were well tolerated, leading to a sensation of digestive well-being, the fiber-enriched Mediterranean diet led to high scores of flatulence and rumbling sounds caused by gas moving through the intestines and a higher number of anal gas evacuations. Stool consistency, stool weight and colonic content were also higher in participants on the fiber-enriched Mediterranean diet.

Although at the gut microbiota composition level some genus and species were enriched in participants who followed the fiber-enriched Mediterranean diet, a core gut microbiota was shared regardless of dietary intervention.

In contrast, both diets had a notable effect on gut microbiota metabolic activity. As such, a total of 27 metabolic pathways showed higher expression following the fiber-enriched Mediterranean diet. It is interesting to note that not all the genomes found in gut microbial communities were influenced in the same way by diet. For example, the fiber-enriched Mediterranean diet led to a gut microbiome with high diversity and enriched in up to 1322 gene families with a less anal gas evacuation in participants with a gut microbiota that did not change after each intervention (i.e., robust gut microbiota).

The results suggest that the metabolic capacity of the gut microbiome might adapt to dietary substrates so dietary fiber does not necessarily be the culprit of symptoms in all people. While patients with gut-brain interaction disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome usually exclude fiber from their diet as means to improve symptoms, the current findings show this choice could not relate to anal gas evacuations in a subset of people.

A short period of two weeks was enough time for the gut microbiota to adapt to dietary substrates, which highlights the importance of evaluating in a personalized way the need to exclude dietary fiber for managing digestive issues. Indeed, a small amount (10 g) of fiber daily has been shown to be enough to selectively promote the growth of beneficial Bifidobacterium species in the gut. Furthermore, a previous intervention study showed that low-dose prebiotics were superior to the known exclusion FODMAP diet for managing digestive symptoms, suggesting that digestive symptoms can be alleviated by modulating the metabolic activity and composition of the intestinal microbiota with diet.

In conclusion, the findings show that although diet does not always lead to changes in gut microbiota composition, it can have a profound effect on gut microbial metabolic functions. That, in turn, can have implications for healthy subjects and patients with digestive symptoms with no detectable abnormalities according to conventional diagnostic methods.


Böhn L, Störsrud S, Törnblom H, et al. Self-reported food-related gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS are common and associated with more severe symptoms and reduced quality of life. Am J Gastroenterol. 2013; 108(5):634-641. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2013.105.

Barber C, Mego M, Sabater C, et al. Differential effects of Western and Mediterranean-type diets on gut microbiota: A metagenomics and metabolomics approach. Nutrients. 2021; 13(8):2638. doi: 10.3390/nu13082638.

So D, Whelan K, Rossi M, et al. Dietary fiber intervention on gut microbiota composition in healthy adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2018; 107(6):965-983. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy041.

September 27th, 2021
By Andreu Prados:  Andreu Prados holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Pharmacy & Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Science writer special in gut microbiota and probiotics, working also as lecturer and consultant in nutrition and healthcare

Air Fryer Chicken Recipe


1 to 4 Chicken Breasts (skinless/boneless)

2 tsp Olive Oil

1/4 tsp Salt – as desired

1/4 tsp Pepper – as desired

1/4 tsp Garlic Powder 

To Prepare:

  1. Brush the chicken pieces with olive oil.
  2. Sprinkle one side with salt, pepper, as desired. Spices can be omitted or replaced with spices of choice.
  3. Place the breast in the air fryer basket seasoned side down. Then season the other side.
  4. Cook at 360° for 9 minutes (for 8 oz chicken breast). Then flip the chicken breast over and cook for another 9 minutes. Larger chicken breasts need more cook time, and smaller ones need less time. Always use a meat thermometer to check the internal temperature.
  5. Open the air fryer immediately so it doesn’t continue cooking in the heat.
  6. * Food Safety: Check the internal temperature by placing the instant-read meat thermometer in the thickest part of each piece of chicken. The temperature should read 158°-160° F. If it is below that, close the lid of the air fryer to let the chicken cook in the residual heat for a few minutes (2 to 4 additional minutes). Then check it again with the meat thermometer.
  7. Place chicken pieces on a plate and loosely cover with foil and let it rest for 5 minutes. It will continue to cook in the residual heat (and the juices will go back into the meat). Then after 5 minutes take the temperature again. The internal temperature should not be below 165° F.
  8. Serve immediately, or prepare left-over pieces of chicken to be placed in the refrigerator immediately to be served within two days. Left-over chicken pieces can also be prepared for other recipes (e.g. chicken soup, chicken salad, chicken and pasta).

Additional Cooking Notes:

Air Fryer Chicken Breast Cook Temp & Times
Turn chicken pieces over halfway through cook time
(Your model and size of the air fryer may vary from this slightly)

Please check your Air Fryer Manual for cooking time and instructions.

Average Cooking Temperature and Times:
6 oz chicken breast 360° for 15 minutes
8 oz chicken breast 360° for 18 minutes
10 oz chicken breast 360° for 20 minutes

When cooking multiple chicken breasts at once, use the average weight of the chicken pieces added together.

Lactose Free Vanilla Pudding Recipe

Pudding is one of those easy and quick comforting desserts that can be prepared anytime  and enjoyed as an after school snack or dessert. This dairy-free (Lactose Free) pudding recipe is always a hit and it’s easy.


Ingredients:  (makes 4 Servings)  (t. = teaspoon, T=Tablespoon)


  • 2/3 cups white granulated sugar
  • ¼ t. salt
  • ¼ cup cornstarch
  • 2 ½ cups unsweetened plain almond milk or other non-dairy milk alternatives   (Soy, Cashew, Rice, Coconut, etc..).
  • 4 large egg yolks
  • 1 t. vanilla extract
  1. In a small saucepan, whisk together the sugar and salt.
  2. In a small dish, combine the cornstarch with 2 T. of the almond milk, mixing until dissolved. Add the cornstarch mixture, remaining milk of your choice and egg yolks to the saucepan, whisking until combined.
  3. Cook the pudding over medium heat, stirring constantly, until mixture thickens and bubbles just begin to form on the surface.
  4. Whisking constantly, turn down the heat to low and cook for about 1 minute more.
  5. Pour the pudding through a fine sieve into a heatproof dish and stir in the vanilla extract.
  6. Place plastic wrap directly on the surface of the pudding and chill at least 2 hours before serving.



Thanks and Appreciation To Our Guests For Joining Us On C. diff. Spores And More Season II

As Season II concludes, we wish to take this opportunity to sincerely thank each
and every guest for taking time out of their
busy schedule and joining us on Tuesday’s at
10:00a Pacific Time / 1:00p Eastern Time over the past seven months.

C. diff. Spores and More Global Broadcasting Network will be taking a break and will return to live broadcasting on  January 17th, 2017 with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) leading the way with our guest
Dr. Katherine Fleming-Dutra, Medical Officer, CDC’s Office of Antibiotic Stewardship.

A Prescription for Over-Prescribing: The Key to Fighting
Antibiotic Resistance

Dr. Fleming-Dutra is a medical epidemiologist with the Office of Antibiotic Stewardship in the Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion at the Centers Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Dr. Fleming-Dutra is a pediatrician and pediatric emergency medicine physician and has focused on infectious diseases epidemiology and antibiotic stewardship in the outpatient setting in her career at CDC.

Join Dr. Fleming-Dutra as she discusses a recent study published by the Journal of the American Medical Association, was released showing that at least 30 percent of all prescriptions written in doctors’ offices and emergency rooms are completely unnecessary. So how do we use these alarming results to transform the culture of over-prescribing Dr. Katherine Fleming-Dutra, M.D., will:

  • Give a detailed explanation of the study results, and provide an in-depth review of specific findings;
  • Highlight what CDC is doing to promote antibiotic stewardship across healthcare settings, and
  • Identify what clinicians, other health care professionals, and patients can do to improve antibiotic prescribing, therefore fighting antibiotic resistance.


C diff Radio Live Broadcast AND Podcasts

C. diff. Spores and More Global Broadcasting Network

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sponsored by Clorox Healthcare

An educational program that is dedicated to  C. difficile Infections  and more–


Click On The LOGO  Above And Enjoy Listening To the Live Broadcasts In the C. diff. Spores and More Podcast Library.


Live Broadcast airs
on Tuesdays at:    10a PT,    11a MT,   12p CT,    1p ET

We are pleased to share  “C. diff. Spores and More ”  with you because, as advocates of  C. diff.,  we know the importance of this cutting-edge new weekly radio show  and what it means for our Foundation’s community worldwide.–

Hard Facts: Deaths and illnesses are much higher than reports have shown. Nearly half a million Americans suffered from Clostridium difficile (C. diff.) infections in a single year according to a study released today, February 25, 2015, by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

• More than 100,000 of these infections developed among residents of U.S. nursing homes.

Approximately 29,000 patients died within 30 days of the initial diagnosis of a C. diff. infection. Of these 29,000 – 15,000 deaths were estimated to be directly related to a
C. diff. infection. Therefore; C. diff. is an important cause of infectious disease death in the U.S.

Previous studies indicate that C. diff. has become the most common microbial cause of Healthcare-Associated Infections found in U.S. hospitals driving up costs to $4.8 billion each year in excess health care costs in acute care facilities alone. Approximately
two-thirds of C. diff. infections were found to be associated with an inpatient stay in a health care facility, only 24% of the total cases occurred in patients while they were hospitalized. The study also revealed that almost as many cases occurred in nursing homes as in hospitals and the remainder of individuals acquired the
Healthcare-Associated infection, C. diff., recently discharged from a health care facility.

This new study finds that 1 out of every 5 patients with the Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI), C. diff., experience a recurrence of the infection and 1 out of every 9 patients over the age of 65 diagnosed with a HAI – C. diff. infection died within 30 days of being diagnosed. Older Americans are quite vulnerable to this life-threatening diarrhea infection. The CDC study also found that women and Caucasian individuals are at an increased risk of acquiring a C. diff. infection. The CDC Director, Dr. Tom Frieden, MD, MPH said, “C. difficile infections cause immense suffering and death for thousands of Americans each year.” “These infections can be prevented by improving antibiotic prescribing and by improving infection control in the health care system. CDC hopes to ramp up prevention of this deadly infection by supporting State Antibiotic Resistance Prevention Programs in all 50 states.”

“This does not include the number of C. diff. infections taking place and being treated in other countries.”  “The  C Diff Foundation supports hundreds of communities by sharing the Foundation’s mission and  raising C. diff. awareness to healthcare professionals, individuals, patients, families,  and communities working towards a shared goal ~  witnessing a reduction of newly diagnosed C. diff. cases by 2020 .”   ” The C Diff Foundation volunteer Advocates are greatly appreciated and continue to create positive changes by sharing their time  aiding in the success of our mission “Raising C. diff. awareness ”  worldwide.

C. diff. Spores and More “ spotlights world renowned topic experts, research scientists, healthcare professionals, organization representatives, C. diff. survivors, board members, and their volunteers who are all creating positive changes in the
C. diff.
community and more.

Through their interviews, the C Diff Foundation mission will connect, educate, and empower listeners worldwide.

Questions received through the show page portal will be reviewed and addressed  by the show’s Medical Correspondent, Dr. Fred Zar, MD, FACP,  Dr. Fred Zar is a Professor of Clinical Medicine, Vice Head for Education in the Department of Medicine, and Program Director of the Internal Medicine Residency at the University of Illinois at Chicago.  Over the last two decades he has been a pioneer in the study of the treatment of Clostridium difficile disease and the need to stratify patients by disease severity.


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Programming for C. diff. Spores and More  is made possible through our official Corporate Sponsor;  Clorox Healthcare

We look forward to sharing time with our worldwide listeners when we return in January, Season III. 

Until then………………

We send out get-well wishes to everyone being treated for and recovering from a C. difficile infection and all wellness draining illnesses worldwide.

“None of us can do this alone – All of us can do this together!”

Hydrating Watermelon Drink by Michele Martello, Wellness Advocate

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Ingredients Used in this video:

Seedless Watermelon

Water infused with fruit

Splash of Coconut Water

Fresh Mint


Equipment:   Blender


Created by Michele Martello, Wellness Advocate for the C Diff Foundation

July 2016