Recurrent Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (rCDI) is common and increases healthcare resource utilization. In this study, we assessed rCDI risk factors using an up-to-date, Japanese national hospital-based database.
C. difficile infection (CDI) episodes, occurring July 2014-June 2017, in patients aged ≥18 years were extracted from the database and a nested case-control analysis was performed. Cases were defined as rCDI episodes which required re-initiation of oral vancomycin or oral/intravenous metronidazole treatment within 8 weeks from the start of initial treatment. Cases were matched to 4 non-rCDI episodes at the timing of rCDI occurrence. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using multivariate conditional logistic regression model.
Of 18,246 initial CDI episodes, 3250 (17.8%) had at least one rCDI. Approximately 90% of episodes occurred in inpatients and 65% were treated with metronidazole. Older age (<75 years vs 75-84 years and vs 85 + years) was associated with higher risk of rCDI (OR = 1.27, 95% confidence interval [1.15, 1.41] and 1.45 [1.30, 1.61], respectively). Use of systemic antibiotics (3.16 [2.90, 3.44]), probiotics (2.53 [2.32, 2.77]), chemotherapy (1.28 [1.08, 1.53]), or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (1.17 [1.07, 1.28]), and prior CDI history (1.22 [1.03, 1.43]) were also identified as rCDI risk factors. Vancomycin reduced the risk of rCDI compared with metronidazole treatment (0.83 [0.76, 0.91]).
This large, multicenter, nationwide study confirmed that older age, PPIs, antibiotics, probiotics, chemotherapy, and prior CDI history are risk factors for rCDI in Japan. There was a 17% decrease of rCDI risk with vancomycin vs metronidazole treatment.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:N/A.
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The combination of vancomycin and fecal microbiota transplantation was found to be superior to fidaxomicin or vancomycin in the treatment of patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI), according to a study published in Gastroenterology.
This randomized, single-center trial was designed to compare the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation with that of fidaxomicin and vancomycin.
Sixty-four adults with recurrent CDI seen at a gastroenterology clinic in Denmark between April 5, 2016 and June 10, 2018 were randomly assigned to a group receiving fecal microbiota transplantation applied by colonoscopy or nasojejunal tube after 4 to 10 days of 125 mg vancomycin 4 times daily (n=24), or 10 days of 200 mg fidaxomicin 2 times daily (n=24), or 10 days of 125 mg vancomycin 4 times daily (n=16).
Patients experiencing a CDI recurrence after this course of treatment, and those who could not be randomly assigned were provided rescue fecal microbiota transplantation. The primary study outcome was combined clinical resolution and negative polymerase chain reaction test for C difficile toxin at 8 weeks post-treatment, and secondary end points included week 8 clinical resolution.
The combination of negative C difficile test results and clinical resolution was observed in 71% of the 24 participants who received fecal microbiota transplantation (95% CI, 49-87%; n=17), 33% of the 24 participants who received fidaxomicin (95% CI, 16-55%; n=8), and 19% of the 16 participants (95% CI, 5-46%; n=3) who received vancomycin (fecal microbiota transplantation vs fidaxomicin, P=.009; fecal microbiota transplantation vs vancomycin, P=.001; fidaxomicin vs vancomycin, P=.31). Clinical resolution was observed in 92% of participants who received fecal microbiota transplantation (n=22; P=.0002), 42% of participants who were treated with fidaxomicin (n=10; P <.0001), and 19% of participants who were treated with vancomycin (n=3; P=.13). No significant differences in results were seen between patients receiving initial fecal microbiota transplantation therapy and those who received rescue treatment with such a transplant.
Of note, adverse events (transient abdominal pain, constipation, bloating and diarrhea) were observed in 10 of the participants who received a fecal microbiota transplant, 1 of which was classified as severe.
Researchers noted limitation of a lack of patients with C difficile ribotype 027, such that results may not be generalizable to settings with a high ribotype 027 frequency. Study interventions were also unblinded, introducing the possibility of observer bias, although the C difficile toxin test was applied to all patients at all time points in an effort to obtain objective outcome measures.
Study investigators concluded, “[fecal microbiota transplantation] was superior to both fidaxomicin and vancomycin monotherapies for [recurrent] CDI, with regard to both combined clinical and microbiological resolution and clinical resolution alone.”
A tapered and pulsed regimen with vancomycin — with diligent follow-up — can achieve significant cure rates in recurrent Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infected patients, according to a new study.
Researchers from Loyola Medicine retrospectively studied 100 vancomycin taper and pulse treatment patients treated for recurrent C. difficile infection between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014. Their clinic, the study authors wrote, has been a referral center for the infection for the past decade.
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However, despite the guidelines for treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection being not too different than recurrent episodes – except for the use of vancomycin when the case is severe – there have not been many studies on this vancomycin taper and pulsed dosing.
The researchers observed that after a referral, the confirmed recurrent C. difficile patients were treated with a vancomycin taper and pulse regimen: a taper of vancomycin to once-daily, followed by alternate day dosing; or once-daily followed by alternate day dosing; followed by every third day, for at least 2 weeks. After this regimen, all patients had 90-day follow-up documentation.
On average, the patients in the clinic were on their third C. difficile diarrhea episode. Half of the patients had also received a standard course of vancomycin, while another third had received some type of vancomycin taper regimen, the researchers said.
Despite the fact that many of these patients were a “treatment experienced” population, 75% of the patients who received a supervised vancomycin taper and pulsed regimen achieved a cure, study author Stuart Johnson MD, . He added that the results were further improved for patients who received the expended pulse phase: 81% achieved a cure.
“The findings were not unexpected to us, but I think that many clinicians will be surprised how well a deliberate, prolonged vancomycin taper and pulse regimen – with careful follow up – works,” Johnson said.
There were no significant differences among the patients in terms of gender, age, concomitant antibiotics, proton pump inhibitor use, histamine receptor-2 blocker use, or patients with a regimen greater than 10 weeks in length, the researchers continued.
The researchers added that their finding of improved cure rates with alternate-day dosing plus every third day dosing over strictly alternate-day dosing is consistent with the hypothesis that pulsed dosing can promote a cyclical decrease in spore burden, they wrote. This can also permit the resetting of normal microbiota in the gut.
Johnson concluded that the clinical implications of the study show most recurrent C. difficile patients do not need fecal microbiota transplant (FMT).
“FMT has received an enormous amount of press and this procedure is now widely available throughout the US,” Johnson said. “FMT is attractive because it addresses one of the primary mechanisms involved with recurrent C. difficile infection, a marked disruption of the resident bacteria that populate the intestine and provide an important host defense against C. difficile.
Although physicians screen donor feces for “known pathogens,” not all is known of the potential complications to come from FMT, Johnson said.
“In addition, it appears that efficacy with a carefully supervised vancomycin taper and pulse regimen compare to that achieved with FMT,” Johnson said.