Category Archives: Antibiotic News

Super-bugs Capture Attention As A Worldwide Health Threat

About 2 million Americans catch drug-resistant infections each year, and 23,000 die, according to the CDC.

As superbugs capture attention as a worldwide health threat, Washington University will be part of a national campaign against drug-resistant bacteria with a $2 million federal grant. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention awarded $14 million to 25 medical schools and other organizations for research into how microorganisms in the body, known as the microbiome, can track and prevent infections by outsider, drug-resistant germs.

“Understanding the role the microbiome plays in antibiotic-resistant infections is necessary to protect the public’s health,” Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC director, said in a statement. “We think it is key to innovative approaches to combat antibiotic resistance, protect patients, and improve antibiotic use.”

The microbiome includes “good” bacteria and other beneficial organisms that live in the skin and in the digestive and respiratory tracts. Antibiotics that are supposed to fight “bad” bacteria can disrupt the natural habitat by unbalancing the good and bad. Then drug-resistant bacteria can take over and create an environment for out-of-control bugs, including methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and clostridium difficile (C. diff.).

Overexposure to antibiotics has been blamed for the rise in superbugs, with the CDC estimating that one in three antibiotic prescriptions is unnecessary.

The research project will look at how early exposure to antibiotics affects the development of the microbiome and whether there are better ways to protect the microbiome.

Four teams of researchers at Washington University were named to the local project:

  • Dr. Jeffrey Henderson will lead a team working to identify how diet and metabolism interact with the gut microbiome in a study to combat C. diff. intestinal infections.
  • A team led by Gautam Dantas will study the long-term effects of antibiotic therapy in premature infants and how their digestive microbiomes are affected.
  • Dr. Jennie Kwon will study antibiotics and the microbiome as it relates to pneumonia.
  • Dr. Brian Gage will help look at hemorrhages linked to the use of blood thinners.

The United Nations General Assembly focused on superbugs — in a rare discussion of health issues. The meeting comes after a new superbug resistant to last-resort antibiotics infected a Pennsylvania woman over the summer, and a resistant strain of E. coli was recently found in a 2-year-old Connecticut girl.

The CDC recommends increased testing for the superbug gene among certain types of E. coli bacteria that show resistance to the powerful antibiotic colistin. The gene spreads readily among bacteria, and it could make these multi-drug-resistant strains almost impossible to treat.

A cluster of gonorrhea infections in Hawaii has shown resistance to all treatments. Doctors are increasingly worried that the common sexually transmitted disease is gaining strength as one of the most urgent superbug threats. If untreated, the disease can lead to infertility.

To read article in its entirety click on the following link:

http://www.stltoday.com/lifestyles/health-med-fit/health/antibiotic-resistance-focus-of-washington-university-and-national-research-project/article_b192afec-7dbe-59b8-8e06-5e64b7d8795c.html

A Study Provides Data That Between 2010 and 2011 Throughout U.S. At Least 30 Percent of Antibiotics Unnecessarily Prescribed

Antibiotics Unnecessarily Prescribed!

At least 30 percent of antibiotics are unnecessarily prescribed, contributing to the rise of debilitating and sometimes deadly bacteria-resistant superbugs, according to a study released Tuesday – May 3, 2016.

To reach this conclusion, researchers tracked antibiotic use in doctors’ offices and emergency departments between 2010 and 2011 throughout the United States. The study results were published in Journal of the American Medical Association by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention along with Pew Charitable Trusts.

The findings showed that doctors needlessly wrote prescriptions for viruses, such as the common cold, viral sore throats and other ailments that can’t be cured with antibiotics. More than 47 million excess prescriptions put patients in harm’s way for allergic reactions and superbugs, such as Clostridium difficile, or C. diff.

“The rampant misuse of antibiotics is probably the leading infectious disease public health threat the world faces,” Dr. Amesh Adalja, a UPMC infectious disease specialist, said after learning of the study results. “The spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the infections they cause are a crisis and, if allowed to continue, will drag civilization back decades.”

Superbugs kill 23,000 Americans a year and sicken 2 million, according to the CDC.

Last year, the White House set its sights on superbugs, releasing a plan to combat the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The plan’s goal is to reduce outpatient antibiotic use by 50 percent and inpatient use by 20 percent by 2020.

To read the article in its entirety please click on the following link:

http://triblive.com/news/adminpage/10409989-74/antibiotics-antibiotic-doctors

Patient Safety With The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Surveillance Antibiotic Resistance Patient Safety Atlas and More

P A T I E N T   S A F E T Y 

CDC’s Antibiotic Resistance Patient Safety Atlas provides open and interactive data about healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, which are reported to CDC through the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).

You can customize maps and tables to show antibiotic resistance patterns in Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI’s)  by filtering the data by geographical area (national, regional, and state), time period, event type, and patient age.

For more information visit the following CDC Website:

http://www.cdc.gov/hai/surveillance/ar-patient-safety-atlas.html

Blood Test Developed By N.C. Researchers Is Able To Distinguish Between Viral and Bacterial Infections

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In the news *

 

 

A new blood test developed by researchers in North Carolina has been shown to distinguish between viral and bacterial infections.

The blood test has been designed to measure the gene expression of certain components of the immune system, which should allow doctors to identify whether the infection a patient is suffering from is bacterial or viral.

This distinction is crucial, as bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, whereas viral infections cannot, and prescribing antibiotics for viral infections only adds to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.

‘Antibiotic resistance has been described as ‘one of the biggest health threats of our time’…’

Antibiotic resistance has been described as ‘one of the biggest health threats of our time’, and bold warnings have been issued explaining that if we do not refine our use of the drugs, in the future we may no longer be able to perform routine operations or use chemotherapy, and many could end up dying from illnesses commonly treatable today.Antibiotics work by targeting properties of bacteria that are unique and fundamental to them, such as blocking their ability to synthesize proteins or damaging their cell wall. The reason antibiotics can work so well is because the properties we target have no counterparts in human cells and therefore treatment can be given with minimal side effects on ourselves.

The problem of resistance arises as bacteria mutate, and there are a number of ways in which bacteria can do this. One way bacteria can counter the effects of antibiotics is by altering the drug’s target, such as the cell wall, so it is no longer vulnerable to the antibiotic. Bacteria can also create enzymes which inactivate the antibiotic or can create a ‘pump’ to remove the drug from their cells.

It only takes a single bacterium to acquire one of these changes to result in an antibiotic resistant infection. Bacteria multiply at a very fast rate and thus if even one bacterium mutates, and the antibiotic clears every other normal bacterial cell involved in the infection, that single mutated bacterium can rapidly divide, increase in numbers resulting in an antibiotic resistant infection.

‘The overuse of antibiotics makes it far more likely that bacteria will acquire mutations that make them resistant…’

An astounding 50% of antibiotics prescribed are given to patients in unnecessary circumstances, such as in viral infection. The properties of viruses are very different to bacteria and therefore antibiotics are ineffective against infections caused by viruses. The overuse of antibiotics makes it far more likely that bacteria will acquire mutations that make them resistant, meaning our antibiotics are slowly but surely becoming ineffective.

The new blood test developed by scientists at Duke University in North Carolina managed to distinguish between bacterial and viral infection with an accuracy of 87% in a study on 317 patient blood samples.

Here in the UK, the Longitude Prize, a £10 million grant, was chosen by the public to be invested in antibiotic research with the aim to design a test that will conclusively distinguish between bacterial and viral infection.

The new blood test in question could provide a good foundation for further research to be done, allowing conclusive and accurate diagnosis of bacterial infection. Unfortunately, the blood test requires ten hours of analysis and so would be of minimal use in a GP environment where most over-prescription takes place. However, with the Longitude Prize pushing for new research into a quick and easy test to confirm bacterial infection, this new blood test has the potential to do big things for such a topical issue.

 

To read the article in its entirety click on the link below:

 

http://www.redbrick.me/tech/new-blood-test-distinguishes-viral-bacterial-infections/

Using Antibiotics Wisely, How Everyone Can Help In the Fight Against Antibiotic Resistance Worldwide

Did you have the opportunity to listen  to the live broadcast on “C. diff. Spores and More Global Broadcasting Network”  on Tuesday, February 9th, 2016 with guests Dr. Lori Hicks and Dr. Arjun Srinivasan from  the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ?

Dr. Hicks and Dr. Srinivasan discussed how to use antibiotics wisely and how everyone can help in the fight against antibiotic-resistance.

This important  information  is now available to you on demand by clicking directly on the logo below

 

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For additional information on Inpatient Antibiotic Stewardship please click on the following link:

http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/healthcare/inpatient-stewardship.html

 

To access the CDC Get Smart Program, please click on the following link to be redirected:

http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/index.html

 

 

C. diff. Spores and More” programming is brought to you by VoiceAmerica  and sponsored by Clorox Healthcare

For more information please visit the C. diff. Spores and More program page:

https://cdifffoundation.org/c-diff-radio/

C difficile Study And Antibiotic Resistance; The Risks For Infection

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C. diff Study Provides Insight Into Antibiotic Resistance and Risks for Infection

Exposure to specific antibiotics is linked to the development of certain strains of antibiotic-resistant C. difficile, one of the fastest growing bacteria superbugs, according to a new study published by Stuart Johnson, MD, of Loyola University Health System (LUHS), Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine (SSOM) and the Hines VA Medical Hospital.

“This discovery takes us one step closer to preventing C. diff and supports targeting specific antibiotics for antibiotic stewardship monitoring programs in the setting of high infection rates due to specific strains of C. diff,” said Dr. Johnson, the lead author, who reported the findings of the retrospective C. diff case control study in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

C. diff has been associated with multiple healthcare facility outbreaks and high national rates of C. difficile infection (CDI) since 2001 and now rivals Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in both frequency and severity.

Several infectious diseases, including MRSA and C. diff, have become resistant to antibiotics.

As a result, the medical community has deliberately reduced the routine practice of prescribing antibiotics for infectious diseases.

There currently is not a highly effective prevention method for C. diff.

“Antibiotic exposure is arguably the most important risk factor for C. difficile infection (CDI),” Johnson wrote.

“We know that antibiotics wipe out beneficial flora in the gut, making patients susceptible to a C. diff infection.

The other role of antibiotics highlighted in our study is that overuse of specific antibiotics may facilitate infection due to C. diff strains that are highly resistant to those antibiotics.”

Dr. Johnson and a team that included his longtime research partner, foremost C. diff expert Dale Gerding, MD, LUHS, SSOM, identified 143 patients with first episode CDI between 2005 and 2007 in one U.S. hospital at a time when increased CDI rates and severity were noted nation-wide.

Of those 103 patients, or 72 percent, were infected with the BI/NAP1/027 C. diff strain, which is highly resistant to fluoroquinolones and macrolides.

Most patients received multiple antibiotics within six weeks of being diagnosed with CDI. Fluoroquinolone and macrolide exposure was more frequent in patients with B1 strains, and the C. difficile bacteria recovered from the stool specimens of these BI-infected patients also showed high-level resistance to these antibiotics.

 

The article, “Fluoroquinolone and Macrolide Exposure Predict Clostridium difficile Infection with the Highly Fluoroquinolone-and Macrolide-Resistant Epidemic C. difficile Strain Bi/NAP1/027,” can be read online. Authors are Jeffrey T. Wieczorkiewicz, Bert K. Lopansri, Adam Cheknis, James R. Osmolski, David W. Hecht, Dale N. Gerding and Stuart Johnson.

Source: Loyola University Health System

 

To read article in its entirety click on the link below:

http://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/news/2016/02/c-diff-study-provides-insight-into-antibiotic-resistance-and-risks-for-infection.aspx

Acute Respiratory Tract Symptoms? American College of Physicians and the CDC Publish Recommendations On the Use Of Antibiotics To Treat

Antibiotics are NOT always the answer………….

The American College of Physicians and the CDC have published a set of recommendations on the appropriate use of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infection.

The recommendations, published in the Annals of Internal Medicine, include the following:

  • Bronchitis: Clinicians shouldn’t order tests or start antibiotics unless they suspect pneumonia.

  • Group A streptococcal pharyngitis: Clinicians should conduct a rapid antigen detection test and/or culture for group A Streptococcus in symptomatic patients. Only patients with confirmed streptococcal pharyngitis should receive antibiotics.

  • Acute rhinosinusitis: Clinicians should prescribe antibiotics only in patients with symptoms that have lasted over 10 days; with severe symptom onset or high fever and purulent nasal discharge or facial pain that has lasted for 3 days or more; or with worsening symptoms after a viral illness that was improving.

  • Common cold: Antibiotics shouldn’t be prescribed.

 

The groups also provide a set of talking points for clinicians when discussing antibiotic use with patients who have an acute respiratory tract infection.

http://www.jwatch.org/fw111074/2016/01/19/acp-cdc-offer-advice-use-antibiotics-acute-respiratory?query=pfwTOC&jwd=000020001882&jspc=EM#sthash.ap0ILqds.dpuf

To read the article in its entirety click on the following link: