Tag Archives: superbug

Xenex Germ Zapping Robot Cleans House To Protect A Pediatric Patient From Deadly Infections

Xenex_LogoLockups_PantoneC

 

 

To view video – click on the link below

http://wdtn.com/2015/11/23/robot-protects-8-year-old-with-brain-tumor-from-deadly-infection/

 

1.7-million Americans will pick up infections at the hospital this year, often antibiotic resistant superbugs hard to disinfect, that can potentially be fatal.

That has apparently happened to an eight-year-old Westlake boy. During the time he was receiving chemotherapy for his brain cancer, he got C. diff. , a superbug that kills one in ten people who get it, and lingers on surfaces for months. But Aydan Chapman is safely home now, his entire house disinfected by a superbug zapping robot.

The San Antonio based company Xenex recently sold its disinfecting robots to St. Davids in Austin. Within minutes, they can disinfect a hospital room for anything from Ebola, C. diff.  MRSA, norovirus, even Anthrax.

Also this fall, Aydan Chapman learned that he had acquired c-Diff, around the time of his chemo treatment at Dell Children’s Medical Center. Dell confirmed the infection. Aydan had already endured four brain tumors since 2009, now he is enduring chemo and strong antibiotics for the superbug.

Bryce Chapman, Aydan’s father, is hearing impaired but told KXAN through a Community Service for the Deaf sign reader, “It was extremely frustrating to see what was happening with him. It was actually two to three weeks before we learned he had the c-Diff, so he had gone through so much at this point. It felt like he was getting hit by more than one thing.”

UVC Emitting Robot
While effective against germs the UVC rays are also dangerous for humans; rooms must be emptied before the robot can begin cleaning.

Xenex learned of what happened. In four short years, they have sold the UVC emitting robots to 300 hospitals, including M.D. Anderson, the Dallas Presbyterian Hospital in Dallas where an Ebola patient died, to the UCLA Medical Center, and others. But occasionally they do pro bono work in homes and high schools. Friday they disinfected Aydan’s home, zapping it from top to bottom in one afternoon.

Xenex vice president Ryan N. Williams believes hospitals too often shortchange their cleaning efforts, “Hospitals are not doing the best they can to be able to eliminate these infections. The incidents of these superbugs and resistant bacteria in the environment has been on the rise. Traditional cleaning and the incidents of human error and oversight is just not good enough.”Aydan, a third grader, homeschools for now but he and his family rest easier knowing that while he continues his chemo, c-Diff may be the least of his worries. His dad says, Yes, it’s absolutely given us peace of mind. Definitely. Now we know our house is peaceful and clean for Aydan.” When asked how he is feeling these days, Aydan tells KXAN “I don’t know how to explain it.” He nodded when asked if he misses school, “I don’t get to see my friends and I don’t get to do the regular things I do at school.” His favorite part of school? “Recess, and math. Because I’m really good at it.” He smiles.

Taking a deeper look at the growing problem of hospital infections, c-Diff is the most common infection caught in American hospitals. It leads to 14,000 deaths a year. In a major study, the University of Texas College of Pharmacy found c-Diff infections doubled in the U.S. between 2001 and 2010, rising from 4.5 patients per thousand visits to 8.2 patients.
Just last year President Obama signed an executive order calling for a national strategy to combat antibiotic resistant bacteria, the so-called superbugs

 

To read article in its entirety click on the following link:

http://wdtn.com/2015/11/23/robot-protects-8-year-old-with-brain-tumor-from-deadly-infection/

 

 

C. difficile (C.diff.) News – University of Michigan Scientists discover how C. diff. wreaks havoc in the gastrointestinal system

Study in mice could lead to better treatment and prevention for humans

Sometimes, science means staying awake for two days straight.

But losing sleep is a small sacrifice to make, if you want to learn more about tiny bacteria that sicken half a million Americans each year, kill more than 14,000 of them, and rack up $4.8 billion in health care costs.

That’s what drove a team of University of Michigan scientists to work around the clock to study the bacterium called Clostridium difficile, C. difficile (C.diff.), the bane of hospitals and nursing homes. Many patients can develop it after taking antibiotics to treat infections.

In a new paper in the journal Infection and Immunity, the researchers lay out for the first time exactly how C. difficile wreaks havoc on the guts of animals in a short time, and causes severe diarrhea and life-threatening disease in humans.

Despite the heavy toll the organism takes, no team had ever been able to measure C. difficile activity over time in this way. Their findings could help lead to better prevention and treatment of C. difficile infections.

A fast track to disease

The researchers started by introducing C. difficile spores into mice via their mouths – similar to what might happen in a hospital environment where spores from past patients’ infections abound. Then, they studied what happened after the spores entered the body, by taking gut samples at regular intervals and studying them under special conditions. The animals had all received antibiotics.

Through their hours-long surveillance, the researchers found that it took C. difficile only about 24 hours to go from hard spores to toxin-producing, diarrhea-inducing cells all the way at the other end of the digestive tract, in the large intestine.

The researchers also show that bile acids in the gut “woke up” the dormant bacteria spores, and that they grow into cells in the small intestine within 24 hours of exposure.

C difficile microbiome

Because antibiotic have the ability to disrupt the gut’s normal community of other bacteria – called the gut microbiome — C. difficile cells could continue down to the large intestine and start their toxic effects on the cells that line the colon.

When they tested the contents of the small intestine separately, they also showed this happens whether or not the animals have received antibiotics.

In the large intestine, they even saw how C. difficile cells formed spores  – allowing them to survive the exit from the body in feces and go on to infect a new host.

“If we can understand the process that specific bacteria use to germinate and get established, we may be able to intervene more effectively,” says Vincent Young, M.D., Ph.D., the senior author of the new study, a professor at the U-M Medical School and co-leader of the school’s Host Microbiome Initiative. “We assume that antibiotics change the gut microbiome, but we haven’t known how that allows C. difficile to gain a foothold and begin to ramp up growth.”

First author Mark Koenigsknecht, Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow in Young’s lab who is now continuing his research at the U-M College of Pharmacy, was one of the researchers who was up all night to get data for the experiment.

“We introduced 100 spores through the mouth, and within six hours we could find 1,000 cells in the intestinal tract,” he notes. “We chose this strain of C. difficile because of its rapid ability to cause disease in animals, but we didn’t think it would happen that quickly.”

Tracking C. difficile’s effect on the gut

 

Effect of C Diff on gut cells

Click the image to see it larger

The U-M team used a mouse model they developed, and a common antibiotic in the cephalosporin class. The strain of C. difficile used in the experiment originated with a patient years ago, but is available for purchase as a laboratory culture.

Anaerobic chambers

Special oxygen-free chambers were
used in the research,
 giving researchers
the ability to study the gut microbiome

in the anaerobic environment that’s present
inside the body.

Working in facilities made possible by the Host Microbiome Initiative, they took samples at regular intervals from seven different areas of the digestive tracts of the mice. They then whisked the samples into special oxygen-free facilities, called anaerobic chambers, that allowed them to see the amount and forms of C. difficile present in each gut region.

With the help of Patrick Schloss, Ph.D., a professor in the Department of Microbiology & Immunology, the researchers used DNA analysis to see what the entire gut microbiome looked like in antibiotic-treated animals and those that hadn’t been treated. The antibiotics really disrupted the community of bacteria in the small intestine, and C. difficile came to dominate in 36 hours.

They also examined the intestinal tract under a microscope. The toxin produced by C. difficile cells in their vegetative, or growing, state causes an effect on the cells that line the digestive tract, causing them to become “leaky”, raising the alarm among nearby immune system cells, and leading to diarrhea. The cell changes were seen in the large intestine about 30 hours after spore introduction.

Next steps

C difficile graphs

Three graphs showing how quickly
C. difficile took over the guts of
antibiotic-treated mice.

Koenigsknecht notes that this is the first time researchers have seen in a living animal that toxin production, and production of new spores of C. difficile capable of surviving outside the body, occur at the same time. This indication that the two processes are linked, and that they are switched on by some factor in the body, is intriguing, he says.

Now, the effort to figure out what that signal is, whether different strains of C. difficile act differently, and who is most vulnerable to its effects, will continue.

Koenigsknecht has teamed with College of Pharmacy professors to test the use of a seven-foot-long tube that can be threaded down the human digestive tract and used to retrieve samples at different locations along the way. Originally developed for testing how drugs are broken down and used by the body, it could provide an entirely new window into the human microbiome.

“Now that we understand what C. difficile is doing, we can also go and ask more questions about how the machinery inside the cell is turning on,” he says. “We have to know how to study it before we can cure it.” Animal-based research is vital to this effort.

Young notes that there are many ways C. difficile could take over an antibiotic-decimated gut. “Does it prevent other bacteria from growing, or out-compete them by eating faster? Does it communicate with the cells of the gut lining? We’re trying to figure out the interaction between the ‘good bugs’ and the ‘bad bugs’, and the lining of the gut.” Young is an associate professor of infectious diseases and of microbiology and immunology.

In addition to Young, Schloss and Koenigsknecht, the study’s authors are Casey Theriot, Ingrid Bergin and Cassie Schumacher.

The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health grants U19AI090871, K01GM109236 and 5R01GM099514. It used the U-M Metabolomics Core, funded by NIH grant U24 DK097153. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health

For entire article please click on the link below:

http://www.uofmhealth.org/news/archive/201502/stalking-wily-foe-u-m-scientists-figure-out-how-c-difficile

C. difficile Infection: EUCLID Study Reveals >39K Cases May Be Missed Yearly

* IN THE NEWS:  12 MAY 2014  *

 

EUCLID Study Reveals More Than 39,000 Cases of Clostridium difficile Infection  May Be Missed Each Year

 

Clostridium difficile is the major cause of infective, hospital-acquired diarrhoea in the developed world1

BARCELONA, SPAIN, 12 MAY 2014, PRNewswire/- The full set of data from EUCLID, the largest ever prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) across Europe, were presented today at the 24th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID). Data from 482 European hospitals reveal that in a single day, an average of 109 cases of CDI are missed due to a lack of clinical suspicion or inadequate laboratory testing, potentially leading to more than 39,000 missed cases in Europe each year.2

The study results show that incidence of CDI in Europe has increased (compared with previous studies) from 4.123 to 7.92 cases per 10,000 patient bed days between 2008 and 2012-13, respectively. Furthermore, the new data highlight that CDI PCR-ribotype 027, one of the most virulent PCR-ribotypes associated with CDI epidemics,4 is the most common in Europe.5 Countries with the highest rates of CDI testing had the lowest rates of this epidemic C. difficile strain.5

“Countries with increased awareness of CDI have probably been able to reduce outbreaks associated with the most virulent C. difficile strains by improving the early diagnosis of this usually healthcare associated infection” said Professor Mark Wilcox, Professor of Medical Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals & University of Leeds. “This study highlights that it is essential that we improve the implementation of CDI testing in hospitals, in order to tackle the issue of the increasing incidence of CDI across Europe.”

The EUropean multi-centre, prospective bi-annual point prevalence study of CLostridium difficile Infection in hospitalised patients with Diarrhoea (EUCLID) involved 482 hospitals from 20 European countries.

These full results compare data captured on two separate days, one in winter 2012/13 and one in summer 2013. On each of the assigned days, participating hospitals submitted all received unformed faecal samples to the respective EUCLID National Coordinating laboratories (NCLs). In total, 7,181 faecal samples were submitted by participating hospitals.2

Results of this study highlight marked recent shifts in CDI testing policy and methodology across Europe, resulting in improved testing policies and selection of laboratory methods.2 The data show that false-positive rates decreased between the two study days in those countries where testing procedures and methods had improved.2 Despite this, more than 50% of hospitals are still not using the most accurate testing procedure for CDI and more than one in five (21.8%) samples found to be positive for CDI at the NCL had not been tested at the local hospital level.2 In addition, the findings reveal that over half (52.1%) of hospitals in Europe only test for CDI at a physician’s request.2

“Guidelines recommend that hospitals test for CDI on all unformed stools when the cause of diarrhoea is not clear. However we are still seeing an issue with both a lack of clinical suspicion and lack of testing for CDI”, commented Professor Mark Wilcox. “CDI is a condition which causes considerable suffering for patients and a huge economic burden to hospitals across Europe. These results reveal that there is still more to be done in order to optimise CDI management and prevention.”

The EUCLID study is being coordinated out of the University of Leeds, UK, by Professor Mark Wilcox’s research group, with support from the EUCLID Core Group. The study was initiated and financially supported by Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd.

About Clostridium difficile Infection

CDI is a serious illness resulting from infection of the internal lining of the colon by C. difficile bacteria. The bacteria produce toxins that cause inflammation of the colon, diarrhoea and, in some cases, death.6 Patients typically develop CDI after the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics that disrupt normal bowel flora, allowing C. difficile bacteria to flourish.7 CDI is the leading cause of hospital acquired (nosocomial) diarrhoea in industrialised countries8 and the risk of CDI and disease recurrence is particularly high in patients aged 65 years and older.9 Recurrence of CDI occurs in up to 25% of patients within 30 days of initial treatment with current therapies.10,11,12 The ESCMID has identified recurrence as being the most important problem in the treatment of CDI.13

About Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd.

Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd., located in the UK, is the European Headquarters of Tokyo-based Astellas Pharma Inc. Astellas is a pharmaceutical company dedicated to improving the health of people around the world through the provision of innovative and reliable pharmaceuticals. As a global company, Astellas is committed to combining outstanding research and development (R&D) and marketing capabilities to continue to grow in the world pharmaceutical market. Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd. manages 21 affiliate offices located across Europe, the Middle East and Africa. In addition, the Company has an R&D site and three manufacturing plants in Europe. The company employs approximately 4,300 staff across these regions. For more information about Astellas Pharma Europe, please visit http://www.astellas.eu.

References

  1. Ananthakrishnan AN. Clostridium difficile infection: epidemiology, risk factors and management. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011;8:17-26.
  2. Davies KA, et al. Second report from the EUropean, multi-centre, prospective bi-annual point prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalised patients with Diarrhoea (EUCLID) PO753. Presented at ECCMID 2014.
  3. Bauer MP et al. Clostridium difficile infection in Europe: a hospital-based survey. Lancet 2011; 377:63-73.
  4. Kuijper EJ, Coignard B, Tull P. Emergence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in North America and Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect 2006;12 suppl 6:2–18.
  5. Davies KA. Increased diversity of C. difficile PCR-ribotypes across European countries and disparity of 027 prevalence; results of a European prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection (EUCLID). Presented at ECCMID 2014.
  6. Poutanen SM, et al. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in adults. CMAJ 2004;171:51–8.
  7. Kelly CP, et al. Clostridium difficile infection. Ann Rev Med 1998;49:375–390.
  8. Crobach MJ, et al. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID): Data review and recommendations for diagnosing Clostridium difficile-infection (CDI). Clin Micro Infect 2009;15:1053–1066.
  9. Pepin J, et al. Increasing risk of relapse after treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis in Quebec, Canada. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:1591–7.
  10. Bouza E, et al. Results of a phase III trial comparing tolevamer, vancomycin and metronidazole in patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. Clin Micro Infect 2008;14(suppl 7):S103-4.
  11. Lowy I, et al. Treatment with Monoclonal Antibodies against Clostridium difficile Toxins. N Engl J Med 2010;362;3:197-205.
  12. Louie TJ, et al. Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection. N Engl J Med 2011;364:422–31.
  13. Bauer MP, et al. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Disease (ESCMID): treatment guidance document for Clostridium difficile-infection (CDI). Clin Micro Infect 2009;15: 1067-79.

The EUCLID study is being coordinated out of the University of Leeds, UK, by Professor Mark Wilcox’s research group, with support from the EUCLID Core Group. The study was initiated and financially supported by Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd.

FDX/14/0017/EUf
Date of Prep: May 2014

Clostridium difficile: RI Hospital researchers identify components of C. diff for a possible rapid diagnostic test

Microscope - 5Dr. Leonard Mermel, DO, Medical Director of Epidemiology and            Infection Control at Rhode Island Hospital, along with research              colleagues, identified components in Clostridium difficile that could possibly   advance to the development of a rapid                                 lab – diagnostic  test.  This study will pave way to a new tool that will enable clinicians, especially in both Emergency departments and     Urgent Care settings, the ability to rapidly diagnose a patient displaying symptoms of an active C. dfif. infection.  The rapid test results will provide an accurate diagnosis, prompt treatment, with hopes of decreasing severe complications associated with a C. diff.   infection.

Dr. Leonard Mermel, DO, Medical Director of the Department of Epidemiology and Infection Control at Rhode Island Hospital with academic appointment at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, along with research colleagues;                                                                   Stephanie L. Angione,  Anubhav Tripathi of the Center for Biomedical Engineering at Brown University,    Aleksey Novikov, MD, and Jennifer Fieber of Brown University, and Aartik A. Sarma of Harvard Medical School.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-01/l-rhr013014.php

Rebiotix, Inc. Completes Enrollment in Phase II Clinical Trial

In The News:

Rebiotix Inc. has announced that it has completed enrollment in the PUNCH CD Phase 2 clinical trial of RBX2660 (microbiota suspension) for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). The study is the first of its kind prospective, multi-center clinical study to evaluate a non-antibiotic, live microbial drug product for the treatment of recurrent CDAD conducted using the same protocol at all sites.

To read the article in its’ entirety please click on the following link:

http://finance.yahoo.com/news/rebiotix-completes-enrollment-phase-2-142400625.html?soc_src=mediacontentstory

 

 

*Please note – The C Diff Foundation does not endorse this product or any product and this posting is strictly for informational purposes only.

 

Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work – CDC Campaign

 

Image

What Can You Do To Protect Yourself Or Your Child?

When you use antibiotics appropriately, you do the best for your health, your family’s health, and the health of those around you. 

What To Do

  • Talk with your healthcare provider about antibiotic resistance.
  • When you are prescribed an antibiotic,
    • Take it exactly as the doctor tells you. Complete the prescribed course even if you are feeling better. If treatment stops too soon, some bacteria may survive and re-infect you.

       This goes for children, too. Make sure your children take all medication as prescribed, even if they feel better.

      Throw away any leftover medication once you have completed your prescription

What Not To Do

  • Antibiotics cure bacteria, not viruses such as:
    • Colds or flu;
    • Most coughs and bronchitis;
    • Sore throats not caused by strep; or
    • Runny noses.

C diff bacteria eaten by viruses

In the news:

A possible scientific breakthrough in treating the Clostridium difficile bacterial infection: Researchers from the University of Leicester in England may have discovered a more potent, and seemingly unlikely, treatment for these highly infectious bacteria: viruses.

Dr. Martha Clokie, from the University of Leicester’s department of infection, immunity and inflammation, stated, “(Researchers) haven’t really found C. diff phages before, partly because they looked in the wrong places,”   “We know C. diff to be a gut pathogen, causing huge problems in hospital settings, but it also has a strong presence in environmental settings… And wherever you find bacteria in a natural environment, you will almost always find viruses (that target them).”    “When we add the viruses to the bacteria, the bacteria die in petri dishes,” Clokie said.  “We can also grow gut cells on plates, infect our gut cells with C. diff, and show that adding these viruses gets rid of theC. diff.”

Dr. Clokie had also stated in this interview: “It’d be like an oral pill – a little capsule of viruses.  It’d allow viruses to pass through the stomach, degrade at that point and access C. diff where it needs to.  We’re at an exciting stage for this; we’re not quite there yet, but we’re in an exciting place.”

Dr. Clokie, and her research team, have partnered with the AmpliPhi Biosciences Corporation, a U.S.-based biopharmaceutical company that specializes in the development of phage-based treatments for bacterial infections.

Through their partnership, they have patented Clokie’s virus mixture, hoping to develop it further into a viable treatment option.

To read the article in its’ entirety please click on the link below:

http://www.foxnews.com/health/2013/10/17/bacteria-eating-viruses-found-to-effectively-destroy-c-diff-superbug/