Tag Archives: Astellas Pharma Europe

Researchers Suggest a Portion Of C. diff. Cases In Europe Involve Infections Associated With Other Sources Outside of Healthcare-Associated Infections

As part of a multicenter study, investigators from the University of Oxford, the University of Leeds, Astellas Pharma Europe, and elsewhere used a combination of ribotyping, sequencing, phylogenetics, and geographic analyses to retrace the genetic diversity and potential sources of C. difficile isolates involved in infections in European hospitals.

Recent research suggests a proportion of Clostridium difficile cases in Europe involve not only hospital-acquired infections but also infections associated with other sources, such as food.

As stated in the article:

https://www.genomeweb.com/sequencing/clostridium-difficile-genetic-patterns-europe-point-possible-infection-sources-beyond?utm_source=Sailthru&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=GWDN%20Mon%20PM%202017-04-24&utm_term=GW%20Daily%20News%20Bulletin

David Eyre, a clinical lecturer at the University of Oxford, was slated to present the work at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases annual 2017 meeting in Vienna this past weekend. The study was funded by Astellas Pharma’s Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) program.

“We don’t know much about how C. difficile might be spread in the food chain, but this research suggests it may be very widespread,” Eyre said in a statement. “If that turns out to be the case, then we need to focus on some new preventative strategies such as vaccination in humans once this is possible, or we might need to look at our use of animal fertilizers on crops.”

“This study doesn’t give us any definitive answers,” he explained, “but it does suggest other factors [than hospital infections] are at play in the spread of C. difficile and more research is urgently needed to pin them down.”

####

Some of the strains clustered by locale, consistent with spread from one individual to the next, for example in a healthcare setting. But more unexpectedly, the team also saw strains smattered across seemingly unconnected sites. And because at least one of those strains had previously been linked to pig farming, the researchers speculated that some infections may have been transmitted through food sources.

 

To read the article in its entirety click on the following link:

https://www.genomeweb.com/sequencing/clostridium-difficile-genetic-patterns-europe-point-possible-infection-sources-beyond?utm_source=Sailthru&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=GWDN%20Mon%20PM%202017-04-24&utm_term=GW%20Daily%20News%20Bulletin

Service Evaluation Study Data Shows DIFICLIR [TM] fidaxomicin by Astellas Pharma EMEA Reduces Recurrence and All-Cause Mortality When Used First-Line in All Patients Diagnosed With Clostridium Difficile (CDI) Infection

astellas_logo_4c_tag_sm

Presented May 20th, 2015 at the 5th International Clostridium Difficile Symposium (ICDS) in Bled, Slovenia, the CDI Service Evaluation Study is the first and only real-world multicenter study assessing the effectiveness of current CDI treatment in NHS Secondary Care Trusts in England.[6]

“This study builds on the growing evidence that adopting fidaxomicin as first-line treatment for all patients with CDI, rather than reserving it for more severe cases, provides the best outcomes in terms of recurrence, all-cause mortality and cost effectiveness compared to older treatments – vancomycin and metronidazole”, comments Dr Simon Goldenberg, Consultant Microbiologist and Infection Control Doctor, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust. “A previous study also showed that first-line use of fidaxomicin reduces environmental contamination compared to those treated with vancomycin or metronidazole, further demonstrating the role fidaxomicin may play in reducing the spread and incidence of CDI alongside stringent hospital hygiene protocols.”

 In Europe the incidence and severity of CDI is increasing,[1],[2],[3],[4] with nearly 125,000 cases a year,[5] posing a major threat to healthcare systems and patientsData presented today from the CDI Service Evaluation study shows that the adoption pattern of treatment impacts CDI outcomes. Compared to traditional broad-spectrum antibiotics, first-line use of fidaxomicin – a targeted treatment – in all CDI patients provides the best outcomes in terms of recurrence rate, all-cause mortality and cost effectiveness, compared to use in selected patients only.[6] CDI is associated with high-mortality[7] and cost burden,[8] therefore reducing the incidence and recurrence of CDI is a priority for clinicians, payers and health authorities alike.
Over 1,450 patients were included in the analysis conducted in seven UK hospitals that introduced fidaxomicin, a narrow-spectrum antibiotic for the treatment of CDI, between July 2012 and July 2013.[6] Data collected from 177 patients treated first-line with fidaxomicin during the 12-month evaluation period were compared with those from a retrospective cohort treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics – vancomycin and metronidazole – during the previous 12-month period.[6]

In the two centres (A and B) where fidaxomicin was adopted as a first-line treatment for all patients diagnosed with CDI, a significant reduction in 28-day all-cause mortality was observed, from 18.2% to 3.1% (P<0.001) and 17.3% to 6.3% (P<0.05) respectively.[6],[9] The real-world analysis also supports clinical trial data in highlighting dramatically reduced recurrence rates: from 12.1% and 23.5% with vancomycin and metronidazole, to 3.1% in both centres with first-line fidaxomicin. For every 50 patients treated, this would result in 5 and 10 recurrences avoided in the two centres respectively.[6]

A separate study recently looked at the impact of CDI treatment on environmental contamination. The analyses showed those treated with fidaxomicin are more than 20% less likely to contaminate their environment with CDI (36.8%) compared to patients treated with metronidazole and/or vancomycin (57.6%). This significant decrease in environmental contamination may further contribute to a reduction in secondary cases of CDI.[10]

“The European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified recurrence as the next big challenge to be met in the treatment of CDI, since it occurs in up to 25% of patients treated with current broad-spectrum therapies,” comments Professor Mark Wilcox, Professor of Medical Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals & University of Leeds. “Fidaxomicin has limited activity against the ‘good bacteria’ in the gut and so can be considered to be a targeted treatment option. Preservation of the gut microflora likely contributes to the lower rates of recurrence seen after fidaxomicin treatment of CDI compared with those associated with broader-spectrum antibiotics like vancomycin.”

A CDI recurrence has been previously estimated to add an additional £20,249 on top of an estimated £13,146 spent to treat the initial infection due to prolonged hospital stay, ICU stay, high cost drugs and the surgery necessary to tackle it.[11] An in-depth costing analysis at the two centres that adopted fidaxomicin as a first-line treatment revealed that in centre A the 5 recurrences that could be avoided for every 50 patients treated with the narrow-spectrum antibiotic would result in a cost saving of £19,490, and in centre B, for the 10 recurrences avoided, a cost saving of £121,144.[6] With nearly 125,000 cases of CDI occurring in Europe each year,[5] the potential cost saving for the treatment of this potentially fatal condition is likely to be far greater.

The cost-effectiveness of fidaxomicin has been reinforced in a recent study in France, with fidaxomicin proving to be both clinically and cost-effective compared to vancomycin.[12] The main driver of cost-effectiveness was a significant reduction in the rate of recurrence, resulting in a reduced cost of hospitalisation.[12] In the base case, fidaxomicin was cost-effective compared to vancomycin for all patients at a cost per QALY of €24,242.[12] The cost per recurrence avoided was €1,877 and cost per faecal transplant avoided was €8,967.[12]

In Europe the incidence and severity of CDI is increasing, posing a major threat to healthcare systems and patients.[1],[2],[3],[4] Information suggests that CDI results in death for 9% (2% primary cause, 7% contributory) of all diagnosed patients.[7] This suggests that CDI contributes to the death of around 27,000 people each year across Europe,[7] around five times that of MRSA associated deaths.[13]

ESCMID guidelines currently recommend DIFICLIR as a first line therapy option in CDI patients at risk of recurrence and in patients with severe and non-severe CDI.[14]

NOTES TO EDITORS

About the CDI Service Evaluation study[6]

The CDI Service Evaluation Project is the first and only real-world multicenter study assessing the effectiveness of current CDI treatment for UK patients in NHS Secondary Care Trusts in England. This evaluation looked specifically at the cost-effectiveness of fidaxomicin in clinical practice versus standard of care treatments (vancomycin and metronidazole) in seven trial centres from across the UK:

•    Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust

•    Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust

•    County Durham & Darlington NHS Foundation Trust

•    University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay – NHS Foundation Trust

•    St George’s Healthcare NHS Trust

•    University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust

•    Derby Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

 

The study was sponsored by Astellas Pharma Ltd.

About Clostridium difficile Infection

CDI is a recurring and preventable illness resulting from infection of the internal lining of the colon by C. difficile bacteria.[15] The bacteria produce toxins that cause inflammation of the colon, diarrhoea and, in some cases, death.[16] Patients typically develop CDI after the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics that disrupt normal bowel flora, allowing C. difficile bacteria to flourish.[17] CDI is highly infectious[18] and has surpassed MRSA as a leading cause of healthcare-acquired infection.[19] It is most common in those taking broad-spectrum antibiotics that result in the disruption of normal bowel flora,[20] and threatens those most vulnerable, including the elderly, patients who are immunocompromised or with renal impairment and those who have prolonged periods of hospitalisation.[21],[22] People in hospital with CDI are up to three times more likely to die in hospital (or within a month of infection) than those without CDI.[23],[24] Information suggests nearly 125,000 cases of CDI occur in Europe each year,[5] and that CDI results in death for 9% (2% primary cause, 7% contributory) of all diagnosed patients.[7] Recurrence of CDI occurs in up to 25% of patients within 30 days of initial treatment with current therapies.[25],[26],[27] The ESCMID has identified recurrence as being the most important problem in the treatment of CDI.[28]

About DIFICLIR (fidaxomicin)

DIFICLIR (fidaxomicin) is a first-in-class macrocyclic antibiotic targeted to kill the C. difficile bacteria[29] while sparing the ‘good’ gut bacteria,[30],[31],[32] and represents the newest development in CDI for over 20 years.[33],[34] In the largest Phase III trials in this area fidaxomicin was shown to be non-inferior in initial cure and clearly superior to current standard of care treatment – vancomycin – in achieving sustained clinical cure and addressing recurrence.[27],[35] ESCMID guidelines recommend DIFICLIR as a first line therapy option in CDI patients at risk of recurrence and in patients with severe and non-severe CDI.[14] The safety profile of DIFICLIR is based on data from 564 patients with CDI treated with fidaxomicin in Phase III studies.[33]

About Astellas Pharma EMEA

Astellas Pharma EMEA operates in 40 countries across Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and is the EMEA regional business of Tokyo-based Astellas Pharma Inc. Astellas is a pharmaceutical company dedicated to improving the health of people around the world through the provision of innovative and reliable pharmaceuticals. The organisation’s focus is to deliver outstanding R&D and marketing to continue growing in the world pharmaceutical market. Astellas presence in Europe also includes an R&D site and three manufacturing plants. The company employs over 4,500 people across the EMEA region. In 2013 Astellas was awarded SCRIP Pharmaceutical Company of the Year in recognition of its commercial success and pipeline development.

FOR FULL ARTICLE:

http://www.liberoquotidiano.it/news/comunicati/11791316/DIFICLIR-TM—Fidaxomicin-.html

C. difficile Infection Treatment; DIFICLIR™ (fidaxomicin) Clinically Effective At Reducing Recurrence and Provides Cost Savings When Used First-Line

* In The News *  14 May 2014

 

DIFICLIR™  (fidaxomicin)

Recurrence has been identified by The European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) as the most important problem in the treatment of CDI.[1]

New  data presented at the 24th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) demonstrates that fidaxomicin, when used first-line, is clinically effective and provides cost savings for the treatment of potentially fatal Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).[2] Treatment with fidaxomicin led to a reduction in recurrence for patients with CDI[2] and a saving of over £48,000 to the UK’s NHS versus standard of care treatment (vancomycin or metronidazole).[3]

The study, conducted at St George’s Hospital in London, England, is the first of its kind and looks at a year’s experience using fidaxomicin as a first-line treatment for all adults confirmed to have CDI, including populations not previously studied in randomised controlled Phase III   trials.[2],[4] Data collected from a total of 62 patients treated with fidaxomicin during the 12 month evaluation period were compared with those from a retrospective cohort treated with standard of care (vancomycin or metronidazole) during the previous 12 month period.[5]

Only 6% of patients treated with fidaxomicin had a recurrence of CDI, within 28 days of end of therapy, compared with a 20% recurrence rate with vancomycin/metronidazole in the preceding year.[5] Recurrence is a major challenge in CDI treatment, with previous studies reporting that patients who have already had one recurrence, have a 40% risk of a further episode of CDI.[6]Importantly, in this ‘real world’ study, there were no second recurrences reported in those treated with fidaxomicin. Hence, the observed reduction in recurrence rates and reduced hospital stays since the introduction of fidaxomicin as first-line treatment for CDI has culminated in overall cost savings.[5]

Commenting on the findings, Dr. Tim Planche, lead investigator and Consultant Microbiologist, St George’s Hospital said: “We decided to start using fidaxomicin first-line over a year and a half ago for all cases of Clostridium difficile infection at St George’s, after the exciting data reported in clinical trials showed reduction in recurrence of infection. Having looked at our data we are very pleased to see that we find the same effects occurring in our own “real world” patients. Our team have also looked at the cost-effectiveness of using fidaxomicin and we are assured of the cost benefits of continuing to use this drug. From our experience of using this drug we are very happy to continue using it first-line and that it is worth other hospitals considering as part of their strategy to treat and control Clostridium difficile infection.”

Based on the findings of this landmark study, The Drugs and Therapeutics Committee for the hospital have upheld their recommendation for the use of fidaxomicin as a first-line therapy for all adult patients with CDI.[5]

CDI is one of the most common causes of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and severe cases can lead to bowel surgery and even death.[7] Hospital patients with CDI are up to three times more likely to die in hospital (or within a month of infection) than those without CDI.[8],[9] Recurrence is a major challenge in CDI treatment, 25% of CDI patients suffer a recurrence within one month[10],[11],[12]and patients who have already had one recurrence have a 40% risk of a further episode of CDI.[6]

Commenting on the findings, Professor Oliver Cornely, University Hospital Cologne, Germany said: “One of the biggest challenges to optimal CDI management is recurrence, therefore the significant reduction in disease recurrence by fidaxomicin, compared with vancomycin, is an important step in reducing the morbidity and possibly mortality associated with CDI. The treatment for CDI had remained largely unchanged for 20 years. This real life data demonstrates a treatment advance that can improve patient outcomes and reduce the significant burden of this disease, which will hopefully lead to improved management of CDI in clinical practice.”

These results represent the interim findings of a larger cohort of real world data being collected and analysed from across the UK to assess the effectiveness of fidaxomicin. Data reporting from additional study centres are expected to be presented later in the year.

 

About Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd.

Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd., located in the UK, is the European Headquarters of Tokyo-based Astellas Pharma Inc. Astellas is a pharmaceutical company dedicated to improving the health of people around the world through the provision of innovative and reliable pharmaceuticals. As a global company, Astellas is committed to combining outstanding research and development (R&D) and marketing capabilities to continue to grow in the world pharmaceutical market. Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd. manages 21 affiliate offices located across Europe, the Middle East and Africa. In addition, the Company has an R&D site and three manufacturing plants in Europe. The company employs approximately 4,300 staff across these regions. For more information about Astellas Pharma Europe, please visit http://www.astellas.eu/.

References

1. Bauer MP, et al. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Disease (ESCMID): treatment guidance document for Clostridium difficile-infection (CDI). Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:1067-79.
2. Planche T, et al. Cost-effectiveness of fidaxomicin as first-line treatment for Clostridium difficile infection. Abstract presented at ECCMID 2014.
3. Astellas Data on File DIF14036UK.
4. Cornely A, et al. Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for infection with Clostridium difficile in Europe, Canada, and the USA: a double-blind, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Diseases. 2012:12;281-289.
5. Astellas Data on File FDX/13/0090/EUi.
6. Kelly CP, LaMont JT. Clostridium difficile – more difficult than ever. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(18): 1932−1940.
7. Ananthakrishnan AN. Clostridium difficile infection: epidemiology, risk factors and management. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;8:17-26.
8. Oake N, et al. The effect of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infection on in-hospital mortality. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:1804-10.
9. Hensgens MP, et al. All-Cause and disease-specific mortality in hospitalized patients with Clostridium difficile infection: a Multicenter Cohort Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56:1108-16.
10. Lowy I, et al. Treatment with Monoclonal Antibodies against Clostridium difficile Toxins. N Engl J Med. 2010;362;3:197-205.
11. Bouza E, et al. Results of a phase III trial comparing tolevamer, vancomycin and metronidazole in patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. Clin Micro Infect. 2008;14(Suppl 7):S103-4.
12. Louie TJ, et al. Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:422-31.
13. Poutanen SM, et al. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in adults. CMAJ. 2004;171:51-8.
14. Kelly CP, et al. Clostridium difficile infection. Ann Rev Med. 1998;49:375-390.
15. Crobach MJ, et al. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID): Data review and recommendations for diagnosing Clostridium difficile-infection (CDI). Clin Micro Infect. 2009;15:1053-1066.
16. Pepin J, et al. Increasing risk of relapse after treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis in Quebec, Canada. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:1591-7.

C. difficile Infection: EUCLID Study Reveals >39K Cases May Be Missed Yearly

* IN THE NEWS:  12 MAY 2014  *

 

EUCLID Study Reveals More Than 39,000 Cases of Clostridium difficile Infection  May Be Missed Each Year

 

Clostridium difficile is the major cause of infective, hospital-acquired diarrhoea in the developed world1

BARCELONA, SPAIN, 12 MAY 2014, PRNewswire/- The full set of data from EUCLID, the largest ever prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) across Europe, were presented today at the 24th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID). Data from 482 European hospitals reveal that in a single day, an average of 109 cases of CDI are missed due to a lack of clinical suspicion or inadequate laboratory testing, potentially leading to more than 39,000 missed cases in Europe each year.2

The study results show that incidence of CDI in Europe has increased (compared with previous studies) from 4.123 to 7.92 cases per 10,000 patient bed days between 2008 and 2012-13, respectively. Furthermore, the new data highlight that CDI PCR-ribotype 027, one of the most virulent PCR-ribotypes associated with CDI epidemics,4 is the most common in Europe.5 Countries with the highest rates of CDI testing had the lowest rates of this epidemic C. difficile strain.5

“Countries with increased awareness of CDI have probably been able to reduce outbreaks associated with the most virulent C. difficile strains by improving the early diagnosis of this usually healthcare associated infection” said Professor Mark Wilcox, Professor of Medical Microbiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals & University of Leeds. “This study highlights that it is essential that we improve the implementation of CDI testing in hospitals, in order to tackle the issue of the increasing incidence of CDI across Europe.”

The EUropean multi-centre, prospective bi-annual point prevalence study of CLostridium difficile Infection in hospitalised patients with Diarrhoea (EUCLID) involved 482 hospitals from 20 European countries.

These full results compare data captured on two separate days, one in winter 2012/13 and one in summer 2013. On each of the assigned days, participating hospitals submitted all received unformed faecal samples to the respective EUCLID National Coordinating laboratories (NCLs). In total, 7,181 faecal samples were submitted by participating hospitals.2

Results of this study highlight marked recent shifts in CDI testing policy and methodology across Europe, resulting in improved testing policies and selection of laboratory methods.2 The data show that false-positive rates decreased between the two study days in those countries where testing procedures and methods had improved.2 Despite this, more than 50% of hospitals are still not using the most accurate testing procedure for CDI and more than one in five (21.8%) samples found to be positive for CDI at the NCL had not been tested at the local hospital level.2 In addition, the findings reveal that over half (52.1%) of hospitals in Europe only test for CDI at a physician’s request.2

“Guidelines recommend that hospitals test for CDI on all unformed stools when the cause of diarrhoea is not clear. However we are still seeing an issue with both a lack of clinical suspicion and lack of testing for CDI”, commented Professor Mark Wilcox. “CDI is a condition which causes considerable suffering for patients and a huge economic burden to hospitals across Europe. These results reveal that there is still more to be done in order to optimise CDI management and prevention.”

The EUCLID study is being coordinated out of the University of Leeds, UK, by Professor Mark Wilcox’s research group, with support from the EUCLID Core Group. The study was initiated and financially supported by Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd.

About Clostridium difficile Infection

CDI is a serious illness resulting from infection of the internal lining of the colon by C. difficile bacteria. The bacteria produce toxins that cause inflammation of the colon, diarrhoea and, in some cases, death.6 Patients typically develop CDI after the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics that disrupt normal bowel flora, allowing C. difficile bacteria to flourish.7 CDI is the leading cause of hospital acquired (nosocomial) diarrhoea in industrialised countries8 and the risk of CDI and disease recurrence is particularly high in patients aged 65 years and older.9 Recurrence of CDI occurs in up to 25% of patients within 30 days of initial treatment with current therapies.10,11,12 The ESCMID has identified recurrence as being the most important problem in the treatment of CDI.13

About Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd.

Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd., located in the UK, is the European Headquarters of Tokyo-based Astellas Pharma Inc. Astellas is a pharmaceutical company dedicated to improving the health of people around the world through the provision of innovative and reliable pharmaceuticals. As a global company, Astellas is committed to combining outstanding research and development (R&D) and marketing capabilities to continue to grow in the world pharmaceutical market. Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd. manages 21 affiliate offices located across Europe, the Middle East and Africa. In addition, the Company has an R&D site and three manufacturing plants in Europe. The company employs approximately 4,300 staff across these regions. For more information about Astellas Pharma Europe, please visit http://www.astellas.eu.

References

  1. Ananthakrishnan AN. Clostridium difficile infection: epidemiology, risk factors and management. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011;8:17-26.
  2. Davies KA, et al. Second report from the EUropean, multi-centre, prospective bi-annual point prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalised patients with Diarrhoea (EUCLID) PO753. Presented at ECCMID 2014.
  3. Bauer MP et al. Clostridium difficile infection in Europe: a hospital-based survey. Lancet 2011; 377:63-73.
  4. Kuijper EJ, Coignard B, Tull P. Emergence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in North America and Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect 2006;12 suppl 6:2–18.
  5. Davies KA. Increased diversity of C. difficile PCR-ribotypes across European countries and disparity of 027 prevalence; results of a European prevalence study of Clostridium difficile infection (EUCLID). Presented at ECCMID 2014.
  6. Poutanen SM, et al. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in adults. CMAJ 2004;171:51–8.
  7. Kelly CP, et al. Clostridium difficile infection. Ann Rev Med 1998;49:375–390.
  8. Crobach MJ, et al. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID): Data review and recommendations for diagnosing Clostridium difficile-infection (CDI). Clin Micro Infect 2009;15:1053–1066.
  9. Pepin J, et al. Increasing risk of relapse after treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis in Quebec, Canada. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:1591–7.
  10. Bouza E, et al. Results of a phase III trial comparing tolevamer, vancomycin and metronidazole in patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. Clin Micro Infect 2008;14(suppl 7):S103-4.
  11. Lowy I, et al. Treatment with Monoclonal Antibodies against Clostridium difficile Toxins. N Engl J Med 2010;362;3:197-205.
  12. Louie TJ, et al. Fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for Clostridium difficile infection. N Engl J Med 2011;364:422–31.
  13. Bauer MP, et al. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Disease (ESCMID): treatment guidance document for Clostridium difficile-infection (CDI). Clin Micro Infect 2009;15: 1067-79.

The EUCLID study is being coordinated out of the University of Leeds, UK, by Professor Mark Wilcox’s research group, with support from the EUCLID Core Group. The study was initiated and financially supported by Astellas Pharma Europe Ltd.

FDX/14/0017/EUf
Date of Prep: May 2014