Tag Archives: MRSA

Medicare Penalties Include Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria In Hospital Patient Injury Reporting

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The federal government has cut payments to 769 hospitals with high rates of patient injuries, for the first time counting the spread of antibiotic-resistant germs in assessing penalties.

The punishments come in the third year of Medicare penalties for hospitals with patients most frequently suffering from potentially avoidable complications, including various types of infections, blood clots, bed sores and falls.

This year – 2016 –  the government also examined the prevalence of two types of bacteria resistant to drugs.

Based on rates of all these complications, the hospitals identified by federal officials this week will lose 1 percent of all Medicare payments for a year — with that time frame beginning this past October. While the government did not release the dollar amount of the penalties, they will exceed a million dollars for many larger hospitals. In total, hospitals will lose about $430 million, 18 percent more than they lost last year, according to an estimate from the Association of American Medical Colleges.

The reductions apply not only to patient stays but also will reduce the amount of money hospitals get to teach medical residents and care for low-income people.

Forty percent of the hospitals penalized this year – 2016 – escaped punishment in the first two years of the program, a Kaiser Health News analysis shows. Those 306 hospitals include the University of Miami Hospital in Florida, Cambridge Health Alliance in Massachusetts, the University of Michigan Health System in Ann Arbor and Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City.

Nationally, hospital-acquired conditions declined by 21 percent between 2010 and 2015, according to the federal Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, or AHRQ. The biggest reductions were for bad reactions to medicines, catheter infections and post-surgical blood clots.

Still, hospital harm remains a threat. AHRQ estimates there were 3.8 million hospital injuries last year, which translates to 115 injuries during every 1,000 patient hospital stays during that period.

Each year, at least 2 million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics, including nearly a quarter million cases in hospitals. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates 23,000 people die from them.

Infection experts fear that soon patients may face new strains of germs that are resistant to all existing antibiotics. Between 20 and 50 percent of all antibiotics prescribed in hospitals are either not needed or inappropriate, studies have found. Their proliferation — inside the hospital, in doctor’s prescriptions and in farm animals sold for food — have hastened new strains of bacteria that are resistant to many drugs.

One resistant bacteria that Medicare included into its formula for determining financial penalties for hospitals is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, which can cause pneumonia and bloodstream and skin infections. MRSA is prevalent outside of hospitals and sometimes people with it show no signs of disease. But these people can bring the germ into a hospital, where it can be spread by health care providers and be especially dangerous for older or sick patients whose immune system cannot fight the infection.

Hospitals have had some success in reducing MRSA infections, which dropped by 13 percent between 2011 and 2014, according to the CDC. AHRQ estimates there were 6,300 cases in hospitals last year.

The second bacteria measured for the penalties is Clostridium difficile, known as C. diff, It can be spread through contaminated surfaces or hands. ………,

C. diff has challenged infection control efforts. While hospital infections dropped 8 percent from 2008 to 2014, there was a “significant increase” in C. diff that final year, the CDC says. AHRQ estimated there were 100,000 hospital cases last year.

“The reality is we don’t know how to prevent all these infections,” said Dr. Louise Dembry, a professor at the Yale School of Medicine and president of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.

The Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program also factors in rates of infections from hysterectomies, colon surgeries, urinary tract catheters and central line tubes. Those infections carry the most weight in determining penalties, but the formula also takes into account the frequency of bed sores, hip fractures, blood clots and four other complications.

Specialized hospitals, such as those that treat psychiatric patients, veterans and children, are exempted from the penalties, as are hospitals with the “critical access” designation for being the only provider in an area. Of the remaining hospitals, the Affordable Care Act requires that Medicare penalize the 25 percent that perform the worst on these measures, even if they have reduced infection rates from previous years.

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To read the article in its entirety click on the following link to be redirected:

http://triblive.com/news/healthnow/11702788-74/hospitals-hospital-penalties

Infection Prevention – Patient Safety – Prior And During A Hospital Stay

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This is a patient – safety article and quite informative and beneficial for everyone.  The topics are highlighted on how to prevent infections prior and during a hospital stay.

 

The most pertinent information to review and share with others is as follows:

1. Check Up on Your Hospital
See how it compares with others on central line, C. diff, and MRSA infections, as well as other measures of patient safety. To compare hospitals in your area at preventing infections, use our hospital ratings.

2. Have a Friend or Family Member With You
That person can act as your advocate, ask questions, and keep notes. A Consumer Reports survey of 1,200 recently hospitalized people found that those who had a companion were 16 percent more likely to say that they had been treated respectfully by medical personnel. The most important times to have a companion for preventing infections and other medical errors are on nights, weekends, and holidays, when staff is reduced, and when shifts change.

3. Keep a Record
Keep a pad and pen nearby so that you can note what doctors and nurses say, which drugs you get, and questions you have. If you spot something worrisome, such as a drug you don’t recognize, take a note or snap a picture on your phone. You can also use your phone to record thoughts or conversations with staff. Though some may object, “explain that you are recording so you remember later,” McGiffert says.

4. Insist on Clean Hands
Ask everyone who enters your room whether they’ve washed their hands with soap and water. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is not enough to destroy certain bacteria, such as the dangerous C. diff. Don’t hesitate to say: “I’m sorry, but I didn’t see you wash your hands. Would you mind doing it again?”

https://cdifffoundation.org/hand-washing-updates/

 

5. Keep It Clean
Bring bleach wipes for bed rails, doorknobs, the phone, and the TV remote, all of which can harbor bacteria. And if your room looks dirty, ask that it be cleaned.

6. Cover Wounds
Some hospitals examine incisions daily for infection, but opening the bandage exposes the area to bacteria. Newer techniques—sealing the surgical site with skin glue (instead of staples, which can harbor bacteria) and waterproof dressings that stay on for one to three weeks without opening—are effective at preventing infection.

7. Inquire Whether IVs and Catheters Are Needed
Ask every day whether central lines, urinary catheters, or other tubes can be removed. The longer they’re left in place, the greater the infection risk.

8. Ask About Antibiotics
For many surgeries, you should get an antibiotic 60 minutes before the operation. But research suggests that the type of antibiotic used or the timing of when it’s administered is wrong in up to half of cases.

Listen to one of the educational Podcasts:  Using antibiotics wisely, How to help in the fight against antibiotic resistance  with Guests Dr. Arjun Srinivassan, MD and Dr. Lauri Hicks, DO

https://www.voiceamerica.com/episode/93656/encore-using-antibiotics-wisely-how-you-can-help-in-the-fight-against-antibiotic-resistance

9. Postpone Surgery If You Have an Infection
That increases your risk of developing a new infection and worsening an existing one. So if you have any other type of infection—say, an abscessed tooth—then the surgery should be postponed, if possible, until it’s completely resolved.

10. Say No to Razors
Removing hair from the surgical site is often necessary, but doing that with a regular razor can cause nicks that provide an opening for bacteria. The nurse should use an electric trimmer instead.

11. Question the Need for Heartburn Drugs
Some patients enter the hospital taking heartburn drugs such as Nexium, lansoprazole (Prevacid) or omeprazole (Prilosec) or are prescribed one after they’re admitted. But these drugs, called proton-pump inhibitors, increase the risk of intestinal infections and pneumonia, so consider stopping them before admission and, once there, ask whether you really need one.

12. Test for MRSA
Ask your surgeon to screen you for MRSA, a potentially deadly bacteria that’s resistant to antibiotics, either before you enter or on admission, so that you can address the problem and hospital staff can take extra steps to protect you and others.

13. Watch for Diarrhea
Get tested for C. diff. infection  if you have three loose stools within 24 hours. If you test positive, expect extra precautions for preventing infections from spreading to others.

14. Quit Smoking, Even Temporarily
You won’t be allowed to smoke in the hospital anyway, and stopping as long as possible beforehand cuts the risk of infection. Read our advice on how to stop smoking.

15. Wash Up the Night Before Surgery
Ask about taking precautions before entering the hospital, such as bathing with special soap or using antiseptic wipes.

To read the article in its entirety click on the following link to be redirected:

Learn More About The Signs and Symptoms Of Sepsis With The CDC; It’s A Race Against Time

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Saving patients from sepsis is a race against time

CDC calls sepsis a medical emergency; encourages prompt action for prevention, early recognition

Sepsis is caused by the body’s overwhelming and life-threatening response to an infection and requires rapid intervention. It begins outside of the hospital for nearly 80 percent of patients. According to a new Vital Signs report released by CDC, about 7 in 10 patients with sepsis had used health care services recently or had chronic diseases that required frequent medical care. These represent opportunities for healthcare providers to prevent, recognize, and treat sepsis long before it can cause life-threatening illness or death.

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“When sepsis occurs, it should be treated as a medical emergency,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, M.D., M.P.H. “Doctors and nurses can prevent sepsis and also the devastating effects of sepsis, and patients and families can watch for sepsis and ask, ‘could this be sepsis?’”   

Certain people with an infection are more likely to get sepsis, including people age 65 years or older, infants less than 1 year old, people who have weakened immune systems, and people who have chronic medical conditions (such as diabetes). While much less common, even healthy children and adults can develop sepsis from an infection, especially when not recognized early. The signs and symptoms of sepsis include: shivering, fever, or feeling very cold; extreme pain or discomfort; clammy or sweaty skin; confusion or disorientation; shortness of breath and a high heart rate.

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According to the Vital Signs report, infections of the lung, urinary tract, skin, and gut most often led to sepsis. In most cases, the germ that caused the infection leading to sepsis was not identified. When identified, the most common germs leading to sepsis were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and some types of Streptococcus.

 

Health care providers, patients and their family members can work as a team to prevent sepsis.

Health care providers play a critical role in protecting patients from infections that can lead to sepsis and recognizing sepsis early. Health care providers can:

·         Prevent infections. Follow infection control requirements (such as handwashing) and ensure patients to get recommended vaccines (e.g., flu and pneumococcal).

·         Educate patients and their families. Stress the need to prevent infections, manage chronic conditions, and, if an infection is not improving, promptly seek care. Don’t delay.

·         Think sepsis. Know the signs and symptoms to identify and treat patients earlier.

·         Act fast. If sepsis is suspected, order tests to help determine if an infection is present, where it is, and what caused it. Start antibiotics and other recommended medical care immediately.

·         Reassess patient management. Check patient progress frequently. Reassess antibiotic therapy 24-48 hours or sooner to change therapy as needed. Determine whether the type of antibiotics, dose, and duration are correct.

CDC is working on five key areas related to sepsis:

·         Increasing sepsis awareness by engaging clinical professional organizations and patient advocates.

·         Aligning infection prevention, chronic disease management, and appropriate antibiotic use to promote early recognition of sepsis.

·         Studying risk factors for sepsis that can guide focused prevention and early recognition.

·         Developing tracking for sepsis to measure impact of successful interventions.

·         Preventing infections that may lead to sepsis by promoting vaccination programs, chronic disease management, infection prevention, and appropriate antibiotic use.

To read the entire Vital Signs report visit: www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/sepsis.

For more information on sepsis and CDC’s work visit: www.cdc.gov/sepsis.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

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CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety and security. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, stem from human error or deliberate attack, CDC is committed to respond to America’s most pressing health challenges.

 

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June 21st Join C. diff. Spores and More #CdiffRadio Discuss the Partnership Between Laboratories and Clinical Staff For Accurate C. diff. Infection Diagnosis

 

Listen to the live broadcast from  June 21st,  2016

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To access the live broadcast and Podcast Library
C. diff. Spores and More  Global Broadcasting Network
please click on the logo above *

C. diff. Spores and More,” Global Broadcasting Network – innovative and educational interactive healthcare talk radio program discusses

This Episode:   The Partnership Between Laboratories and Clinical Staff For the Accurate Diagnosis of a C. difficile Infection.

With Our Guests:  Dr. Steven Cagas, Ph.D.,  Dr. Nathan A. Ledeboer, Ph.D, D(ABMM),
Dr. Whitney R. Buckel, PharmD, BCPS, And  Jeanine Thomas

 

Learn about the importance of laboratory testing in the identification of C. difficile Infections (CDI). We will open with an interview with Jeanine Thomas, President and Founder of the MRSA Survivors Network who is a survivor of both MRSA and C. diff. infections. She will share her healthcare journey including the role that diagnostics played. Our second guest will be Nathan A. Ledeboer, PhD, D(ABMM), Medical Director of Microbiology and Molecular Diagnostics for Wisconsin Diagnostic Laboratories and Froedtert Health. He will give an overview and comparisons between various testing technologies available to clinical laboratories today. Our third guest will be Whitney R. Buckel, PharmD, BCPS who is the Infectious Diseases and Antimicrobial Stewardship Clinical Pharmacist at Intermountain Medical Center. Whitney will share with us some important details of how nurses and doctors can support the lab by taking into account the full clinical picture before sending specimens to the lab. Our last guest, Dr. Steven Cagas, will give us a brief overview of Roche Diagnostics as well as their new cobas® Cdiff Test.

 

MORE ABOUT OUR GUESTS:

Jeanine Thomas – President/ Founder of MRSA Survivors Network, National Spokesperson for MRSA, MRSA Expert and Consultant     Ms. Thomas founded MRSA Survivors Network in early 2003 due to having been critically ill with a MRSA infection, sepsis and C. difficile. Her organization was the first in the U.S. to raise the alarm about the MRSA epidemic, healthcare-acquired infections (HAI’s) and antibiotic resistance (AMR) to state and federal health officials in the U.S.   Ms. Thomas has been designated a “Patient Safety Champion” with the World Health Organizations’ World Alliance for Patient Safety (2008 – present), past member of the Joint Commission’s Patient and Family Advisory Council (2008-2010), FDA- appointed consultant on the FDA Anti-Infective Drug Advisory Committee (2008 –present) and a member of Brookings Institution’s Antibiotic Drug Development and Antimicrobial Stewardship Council (2012 –present). WHO- appointed patient representative on developing their Hand Hygiene and Antimicrobial-resistance programs for patients (2009-2012). She is a member of the Patient, Consumer and Public Health Coalition, Washington, D.C.
Dr. Nathan A. Ledeboer, PhD, D(ABMM) 

Nathan A Ledeboer is an Associate Professor of Pathology at the Medical College of Wisconsin and the Medical Director of Microbiology and Molecular Diagnostics for Wisconsin Diagnostic Laboratories and Froedtert Health.  His research endeavors, particularly in the area developing diagnostic tools for infectious diseases, have led to more than 70 publications in peer-reviewed journals and more than 100 funded research projects.
Dr. Ledeboer is also a senior editor for the Journal of Clinical Microbiology.

 

Dr. Whitney R. Buckel, PharmD, BCPS
Infectious Diseases/Antimicrobial Stewardship Clinical Pharmacist Intermountain Medical Center    Dr. Whitney Buckel is the Infectious Diseases/Antimicrobial Stewardship Clinical Pharmacist for Intermountain Medical Center, in Murray, Utah. She also serves as the co-chair of the Intermountain System-wide Antimicrobial Stewardship Committee, overseeing stewardship efforts across 22 hospitals. Whitney graduated from Purdue University College of Pharmacy in 2010, and completed a PGY-1 Pharmacy Practice and PGY-2 Infectious Diseases residency at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. Her research interest is in the design, implementation and outcomes of antimicrobial stewardship initiatives.

 

Dr. Steven Cagas, Ph.D.

Dr. Steven Cagas is a Scientific Affairs Manager within Medical and Scientific Affairs within the Molecular Diagnostics Division of Roche Diagnostics Corporation.  He has 5 years of industry experience at Roche.  He directly interfaces with clinicians and key opinion leaders to assist in the commercialization of products within the Roche Molecular Diagnostics portfolio.  He has spoken at several internal and external conferences as an invited speaker on various topics related to his areas of expertise.  Dr. Cagas received his Ph.D. in Microbiology and Molecular Genetics from the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (currently Rutgers University).  His Ph.D. work focused on the study of the proteins expressed in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.  He used a novel approach to identify the proteins expressed at various stages of development as well as in response to an antifungal agent with both studies leading to high impact publications.

 

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C. diff. Spores and More ™“ Global Broadcasting Network spotlights world renowned topic experts, research scientists, healthcare professionals, organization representatives,C. diff. survivors, board members, and C Diff Foundation volunteers who are all creating positive changes in the C. diff. community worldwide.

Through their interviews, the C Diff Foundation mission will connect, educate, and empower many worldwide.

Questions received through the show page portal will be reviewed and addressed  by the show’s Medical Correspondent, Dr. Fred Zar, MD, FACP,  Dr. Fred Zar is a Professor of Clinical Medicine, Vice HeZarPhotoWebsiteTop (2)ad for Education in the Department of Medicine, and Program Director of the Internal Medicine Residency at the University of Illinois at Chicago.  Over the last two decades he has been a pioneer in the study of the treatment of
Clostridium difficile disease and the need to stratify patients by disease severity.

To access the C. diff. Spores and More program page and library, please click on the following link:    www.voiceamerica.com/show/2441/c-diff-spores-and-more

 

Take our show on the go…………..download a mobile app today

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Programming for C. diff. Spores and More ™  is made possible through our official  Sponsor;  Clorox Healthcare

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CDC Launches Clean Hands Count Campaign May 5, 2016 On World Hand Hygiene Day

In The News:   #CleanHandsCount

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CDC Launches Clean Hands Count Campaign

Today, May 5, 2016 –   World Hand Hygiene Day, CDC has launched a new hand hygiene campaign for healthcare providers, patients, and their loved ones called Clean Hands Count. The campaign aims to:

  • Improve healthcare provider adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations.
  • Address the myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene.
  • Empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands

 

Hand Hygiene Is Everyone’s Responsibility
Everyone CAN Do Their Part At Preventing Infections Worldwide.

 

  • Did you know?
    • On average, healthcare providers clean their hands less than half of the times they should.
    • Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is more effective and less drying to the skin than using soap and water.
    • Using alcohol-based hand sanitizer does NOT cause antibiotic resistance.

    Patients may be at risk of getting an infection while they are being treated for something else.

    The science is clear: Clean hands protect patients and healthcare providers from dangerous and deadly infections.

    Check out today’s Public Health Matters blog to learn other things you may not know about hand hygiene. Visit: http://blogs.cdc.gov/publichealthmatters/2016/05/what-you-may-not-know-about-hand-hygiene/

    Join the CDC  today – May 5, 2016 – at 2 pm ET

    for a Twitter chat on hand hygiene.

    Follow #CleanHandsCount and @CDCgov and be sure to let us know

    who your #CleanHandsCount for

    To learn more about the CDC hand hygiene  Clean Hands Count campaign please visit:

    http://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/

Xenex’s xenon light Germ-Zapping Robots™ Decrease Infection Rates Significantly At Orlando Florida Health South Seminole Hospital

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Infection rates decreased significantly at Orlando Health South Seminole Hospital after the hospital began using Xenex’s xenon light Germ-Zapping Robots™ for room disinfection, according to a new peer-reviewed study published in the American Journal of Infection Control (AJIC). This is the eighth peer-reviewed study that demonstrates how a hospital successfully reduced its infection rates after utilizing Xenex Disinfection Services’ unique Xenon Full-Spectrum Disinfection™ technology to disinfect its rooms. Xenex Germ-Zapping Robots™ have been credited for helping healthcare facilities in the U.S. decrease their Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Clostridium difficile (C.diff) and Surgical Site infection rates by more than 50, 70 and 100 percent respectively.

Xenex’s xenon light disinfection system is the only disinfection system that uses pulsed xenon to create light that covers the entire germicidal spectrum. The Xenex system is the only ultraviolet light disinfection technology shown, in multiple peer-reviewed published studies, to help hospitals reduce infection rates.

According to the new AJIC study, South Seminole Hospital reported a 61 percent reduction in combined Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), MRSA and C.diff infection rates in its Intensive Care Unit (ICU), an 87 percent reduction in its ICU VRE infection rate, and a 29 percent reduction facility-wide in combined VRE, MRSA and C.diff infection rates after it began using Xenex’s xenon light technology. The hospital estimates that it saved $730,000 based on the number of C.diff and VRE infections that were avoided.

The study titled “Impact of pulsed xenon ultraviolet light on hospital-acquired infection (HAI) rates in a community hospital” analyzed the efficacy of pulsed xenon light in two different deployment strategies.

The difference in infection rate reduction was associated with the two different utilization strategies, which indicates best practices for pulsed xenon disinfection. ICU discharges and transfers were disinfected with Xenex Germ-Zapping Robots with a goal of all terminal cleans.

As a result, the combined VRE, MRSA and C.diff infection rates decreased 61 percent. Non-ICU discharges and transfers were disinfected with Xenex robots for C.diff cases only, resulting in a 29 percent decrease in VRE, MRSA and C.diff infection rates facility wide.

“This is an exciting study because it demonstrates best practices for pulsed xenon automated disinfection,” said Dr. Mark Stibich, Chief Scientific Officer at Xenex. “Previous studies have shown that the number of rooms disinfected with the Xenex robot correlates to the infection rate reduction the hospital will experience. This study shows that it’s more effective to use the Xenex robot to disinfect as many rooms as possible versus only disinfecting rooms where patients are known to have an infection. Our pulsed xenon robot works in a five-minute disinfection cycle, so they are able to quickly disinfect multiple rooms per day in a facility – leading to dramatic reductions in infection rates.”

Designed for speed, effectiveness and ease of use, hospital cleaning staff operate the Xenex robot without disrupting hospital operations. The robot pulses intense UV light covering the entire UV spectrum, destroying viruses, bacteria and bacterial spores in a five-minute disinfection cycle. Without contact or chemicals, the robot eliminates harmful microorganisms safely and effectively. According to Xenex customers, the robot can disinfect 30-62 hospital rooms per day, including: patient rooms, operating rooms, equipment rooms, emergency rooms, intensive care units and public areas.

Proven to Reduce HAI Rates

MD Anderson Cancer Center, the Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, Cooley Dickinson Health Care, Trinity Medical Center and other hospitals have published 14 studies providing evidence of the robot’s efficacy in highly regarded scientific journals that include the American Journal of Infection Control (AJIC), Journal of Infection Prevention, Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology (ICHE) and BMC Infectious Diseases.

About Xenex Disinfection Services

Xenex’s patented Full Spectrum™ pulsed xenon UV room disinfection system is used for the advanced disinfection of healthcare facilities. Due to its speed and ease of use, the Xenex system has proven to integrate smoothly into hospital cleaning operations. The Xenex mission is to save lives and reduce suffering by eliminating the deadly microorganisms that cause HAIs. The company is backed by well-known investors that include Brandon Point, Battery Ventures, Targeted Technology Fund II and RK Ventures. For more information, visit www.xenex.com.

 

Resource:

http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20160301006521/en/Infection-Rates-Decline-Florida-Hospital-Xenex-Germ-Zapping

C difficile Study And Antibiotic Resistance; The Risks For Infection

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C. diff Study Provides Insight Into Antibiotic Resistance and Risks for Infection

Exposure to specific antibiotics is linked to the development of certain strains of antibiotic-resistant C. difficile, one of the fastest growing bacteria superbugs, according to a new study published by Stuart Johnson, MD, of Loyola University Health System (LUHS), Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine (SSOM) and the Hines VA Medical Hospital.

“This discovery takes us one step closer to preventing C. diff and supports targeting specific antibiotics for antibiotic stewardship monitoring programs in the setting of high infection rates due to specific strains of C. diff,” said Dr. Johnson, the lead author, who reported the findings of the retrospective C. diff case control study in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

C. diff has been associated with multiple healthcare facility outbreaks and high national rates of C. difficile infection (CDI) since 2001 and now rivals Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in both frequency and severity.

Several infectious diseases, including MRSA and C. diff, have become resistant to antibiotics.

As a result, the medical community has deliberately reduced the routine practice of prescribing antibiotics for infectious diseases.

There currently is not a highly effective prevention method for C. diff.

“Antibiotic exposure is arguably the most important risk factor for C. difficile infection (CDI),” Johnson wrote.

“We know that antibiotics wipe out beneficial flora in the gut, making patients susceptible to a C. diff infection.

The other role of antibiotics highlighted in our study is that overuse of specific antibiotics may facilitate infection due to C. diff strains that are highly resistant to those antibiotics.”

Dr. Johnson and a team that included his longtime research partner, foremost C. diff expert Dale Gerding, MD, LUHS, SSOM, identified 143 patients with first episode CDI between 2005 and 2007 in one U.S. hospital at a time when increased CDI rates and severity were noted nation-wide.

Of those 103 patients, or 72 percent, were infected with the BI/NAP1/027 C. diff strain, which is highly resistant to fluoroquinolones and macrolides.

Most patients received multiple antibiotics within six weeks of being diagnosed with CDI. Fluoroquinolone and macrolide exposure was more frequent in patients with B1 strains, and the C. difficile bacteria recovered from the stool specimens of these BI-infected patients also showed high-level resistance to these antibiotics.

 

The article, “Fluoroquinolone and Macrolide Exposure Predict Clostridium difficile Infection with the Highly Fluoroquinolone-and Macrolide-Resistant Epidemic C. difficile Strain Bi/NAP1/027,” can be read online. Authors are Jeffrey T. Wieczorkiewicz, Bert K. Lopansri, Adam Cheknis, James R. Osmolski, David W. Hecht, Dale N. Gerding and Stuart Johnson.

Source: Loyola University Health System

 

To read article in its entirety click on the link below:

http://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/news/2016/02/c-diff-study-provides-insight-into-antibiotic-resistance-and-risks-for-infection.aspx