Tag Archives: WHO

The World Health Organization (WHO) Ranks Worlds Most Deadliest “Superbugs” In the World

 

the WHO has ranked world’s most deadly “Superbugs” in the world:

Three bacteria were listed as critical:

  • Acinetobacter baumannii bacteria that are resistant to important antibiotics called carbapenems. These are highly drug resistant bacteria that can cause a range of infections for hospitalized patients, including pneumonia, wound, or blood infections.
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are resistant to carbapenems. These bacteria can cause skin rashes and ear infectious in healthy people but also severe blood infections and pneumonia when contracted by sick people in the hospital.
  • Enterobacteriaceae that are resistant to both carbepenems and another class of antibiotics, cephalosporins. This family of bacteria live in the human gut and includes bugs such as E. coli and Salmonella.

The list, which was released February 27th, 2017 and enumerates 12 bacterial threats, grouping them into three categories: critical, high, and medium.

“Antibiotic resistance is growing and we are running out of treatment options. If we leave it to market forces alone, the new antibiotics we most urgently need are not going to be developed in time,” said Dr. Marie-Paule Kieny, the WHO’s assistant director-general for health systems and innovation.

The international team of experts who drew up the new list urged researchers and pharmaceutical companies to focus their efforts on a type of bacteria known as Gram negatives.

(The terminology relates to how the bacteria respond to a stain — developed by Hans Christian Gram — used to make them easier to see under a microscope.)

Dr. Nicola Magrini, a scientist with the WHO’s department of innovation, access and use of essential medicines, said pharmaceutical companies have recently spent more efforts trying to find antibiotics for Gram positive bacteria, perhaps because they are easier and less costly to develop.

Gram negative bacteria typically live in the human gut, which means when they cause illness it can be serious bloodstream infections or urinary tract infections.

Gram positive bacteria are generally found outside the body, on the skin or in the nostrils.

Kieny said the 12 bacteria featured on the priority list were chosen based on the level of drug resistance that already exists for each, the numbers of deaths they cause, the frequency with which people become infected with them outside of hospitals, and the burden these infections place on health care systems.

Paradoxically, though, she and colleagues from the WHO could not provide an estimate of the annual number of deaths attributable to antibiotic-resistant infections. The international disease code system does not currently include a code for antibiotic-resistant infections; it is being amended to include one.

Six (6) others were listed as high priority for new antibiotics. That grouping represents bacteria that cause a large number of infections in otherwise healthy people. Included there is the bacteria that causes gonorrhea, for which there are almost no remaining effective treatments.

Three (3)  other bacteria were listed as being of medium priority, because they are becoming increasingly resistant to available drugs. This group includes Streptococcus pneumoniae that is not susceptible to penicillin. This bacterium causes pneumonia, ear and sinus infections, as well as meningitis and blood infections.

The creation of the list was applauded by others working to combat the rise of antibiotic resistance.

“This priority pathogens list, developed with input from across our community, is important to steer research in the race against drug resistant infection — one of the greatest threats to modern health,” said Tim Jinks, head of drug-resistant infections for the British medical charity Wellcome Trust.

“Within a generation, without new antibiotics, deaths from drug-resistant infection could reach 10 million a year. Without new medicines to treat deadly infection, lifesaving treatments like chemotherapy and organ transplant, and routine operations like caesareans and hip replacements, will be potentially fatal.”

FULL LIST:

Priority 1: Critical
1. Acinetobacter baumannii, carbapenem-resistant
2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, carbapenem-resistant
3. Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant, ESBL-producing

Priority 2: High
4. Enterococcus faecium, vancomycin-resistant
5. Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant, vancomycin-intermediate and resistant
6. Helicobacter pylori, clarithromycin-resistant
7. Campylobacter spp., fluoroquinolone-resistant
8. Salmonellae, fluoroquinolone-resistant
9. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, cephalosporin-resistant, fluoroquinolone-resistant

Priority 3: Medium
10. Streptococcus pneumoniae, penicillin-non-susceptible
11. Haemophilus influenzae, ampicillin-resistant
12. Shigella spp., fluoroquinolone-resistant

 

to read the article in its entirety click on the link below to be redirected:

http://www.businessinsider.com/the-who-has-ranked-the-deadliest-superbugs-in-the-world-2017-2

Antibiotic Resistance IS A Serious Global Health Concern

C.diff. Treatments

A Nevada woman has died from an infection resistant to all available antibiotics in the United States, public health officials report.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the woman’s condition was deemed incurable after being tested against 26 different antibiotics.

Though this isn’t the first case of pan-resistant bacteria in the U.S., at this time it is still uncommon. Still, experts note that antibiotic resistance is a growing health concern globally and call the newly reported case “a wake up call.”

“This is the latest reminder that yes, antibiotic resistance is real,” Dr. James Johnson, a professor specializing in infectious diseases at the University of Minnesota Medical School, told CBS News. “This is not some future, fantasized armageddon threat that maybe will happen after our lifetime. This is now, it’s real, and it’s here.”

According to the report, the woman from Washoe County was in her 70s and had recently returned to America after an extended trip to India. She had been hospitalized there several times before being admitted to an acute care hospital in Nevada in mid-August.

Doctors discovered the woman was infected with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), which is a family of germs that CDC director Dr. Tom Frieden has called “nightmare bacteria” due to the danger it poses for spreading antibiotic resistance.

The woman had a specific type of CRE, called Klebsiella pneumoniae, which can lead to a number of illnesses, including pneumonia, blood stream infections, and meningitis. In early September, she developed septic shock and died.

The authors of the report say the case highlights the need for doctors and hospitals to ask incoming patients about recent travel and if they have been hospitalized elsewhere.

Other experts say it underscores the need for the medical community, the government and the public to take antibiotic resistance more seriously.

According to the CDC, at least two million people become infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria each year, and at least 23,000 die as a direct result of these infections.

The World Health Organization calls antibiotic resistance “one of the biggest threats to global health.”

A grim report released last year suggests that if bacteria keep evolving at the current rate, by 2050, superbugs will kill 10 million people a year.

While scientists are working to develop new antibiotics, that takes time, and experts encourage doctors and the public to focus on prevention efforts.

One of the most important ways to prevent antibiotic resistance is to only take antibiotics only when they’re necessary.

“Drug resistance like this [case] generally develops from too much exposure to antibiotics,” assistant professor of pediatrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and director of the Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship Program at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, told CBS News. “Every time you’re placed on an antibiotic it’s important to question if it’s absolutely necessary and what’s the shortest amount of time you can take this antibiotic for it to still be effective.”

Johnson notes that medical tourism – the practice of traveling to another country to obtain medical treatment, typically at lower cost – may no longer be worth the risk. “With this [antibiotic] resistance issue, the risk/benefit of this approach really changes and I think that people really need to be aware and seriously consider if it’s a good idea given the possibility of this kind of thing,” he said.

Frequent hand washing, particularly in healthcare settings, is also extremely important in preventing the spread of germs.

To read the article in its entirety please click on the link below to be redirected:

http://www.lasvegasnow.com/news/nevada-woman-died-from-superbug-resistant-to-all-available-antibiotics-in-us/640548775

World Health Organization (WHO) Recommends Six-Step Hand-Hygiene Technique

Scientists reveal how to wash your hands: Research shows six step process is most efficient at killing bacteria.,  It turns out that just lathering your hands with soap, rubbing them vigorously for 20 seconds and rinsing is not the most effective way to clean them.
Experts now say the six-step hand-hygiene technique recommended by the World Health Organization is far more superior than a rival three step process.

https://youtu.be/XedODzGrmic

During the randomized controlled trial in an urban, acute-care teaching hospital, researchers observed 42 physicians and 78 nurses completing hand-washing using an alcohol-based hand rub after delivering patient care. The six-step technique was determined to be microbiologically more effective for reducing the median bacterial count (3.28 to 2.58) compared to the three-step method (3.08 to 2.88). However, using the six-step method required 25 percent more time to complete (42.50 seconds vs. 35 seconds).

 

HOW TO PROPERLY WASH YOUR HANDS WITH THE SIX-STEP TECHNIQUE  

1. To properly wash your hands using the superior six-step method begin by wetting hands with water and grab either a dollop of soap or hand rub.

2. Begin rubbing your palms together with your fingers closed, then together with fingers interlaced.

3. Move your right palm over left dorsum with interlaced fingers and vice versa – make sure to really rub in between your fingers.

4. Then interlock your fingers and rub the back of them by turning your wrist in a half circle motion.

5. Clasp your left thumb in your right palm and rub in in a rotational motion from the tip of your fingers to the end of the thumb, then switch hands.

6. And finally scrub the inside of your right hand with your left fingers closed and the other hand.

 

‘Only 65 percent of providers completed the entire hand hygiene process despite participants having instructions on the technique in front of them and having their technique observed.’

 

SixStepHands

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Resourece:

(1)  http://www.shea-online.org/View/ArticleId/409/Six-Step-Hand-Washing-Technique-Found-Most-Effective-for-Reducing-Bacteria.aspx

 

Antibiotic Resistance Is Everybody’s Business – Don’t Wait Another Day To “Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work”

getsmartlogo

 

 

 

Dr. Judy Stone, MD made good points about how we have a long way to go to be where the CDC would like us to be in both knowledge and practice focused on Antibiotics.   ” Last year, the Wellcome Trust brought us grim news about antibiotic resistance, with dire projections that 10 million people might die each year due to resistance, and equally severe economic consequences.”

Through the  “Get Smart” campaign and programs offered everyone can gain valuable knowledge about Antibiotics.  The Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides the  Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work educational  programs for the general public, for farming, and healthcare.

Take a moment and review the CDC’s “Get Smart” information provided on their website and diligently advocate for the safety and the proper use of antibiotics worldwide.

(An excerpt from Dr. Stone’s article)

At last week’s C. diff Foundation conference, Dr. Hudson Garrett suggested that physicians employ a slightly different tactic. Rather than give in to demands for an unnecessary and harmful antibiotic prescription, he suggested that the patients receive a written prescription for specific symptomatic relief products, to provide this sense of validation and to boost satisfaction. It would be nice to see if this can be verified through studies.

Patients seem to have a love-hate relationship with antibiotics, both wanting them, and yet feeling they are a “harsh” and “necessary evil.” This in turn leads many to stop taking them early, not wanting their body to “grow immune”—and not understanding that it is the bacteria that become resistant to antibiotics. This was a widespread belief that appears difficult to overcome.

http://www.forbes.com/sites/judystone/2015/11/18/cdc-says-its-time-to-get-smart-about-antibiotics-weve-got-a-long-way-to-go/2/

Additional information presenting the “Get Smart” Know When Antibiotics Work

 

Antibiotic Resistance Is Everybody’s Business

 

World Health Organization (WHO) World Antibiotic Awareness Week November 16-22

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The first World Antibiotic Awareness Week will be held from 16 to 22 November 2015. The campaign aims to increase awareness of global antibiotic resistance and to encourage best practices among the general public, health workers and policy makers to avoid the further emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance.

WHO Healthcare-Associated Infection Pledge 2015

worldaround
C Diff Foundation Pledges Continued Support to Reduce Healthcare-Associated Infections
The C Diff Foundation continues to recognize the serious disease burden and significant economic impact that healthcare-associated infections places on patients and the health care systems throughout the world.

 

Considering that the majority of these infections are treatable and preventable, appreciating the momentum that the Global Patient Safety Challenge program of the WHO World Alliance for Patient Safety is bringing to reduce healthcare-associated infection at the global level.
Emphasizing that a unique opportunity exists to reverse the incidence of healthcare-associated infections, members of the C Diff Foundation shares and pledges……..
To work together to witness a reduction in healthcare–associated infections through the following actions:
• Acknowledging the importance of healthcare-associated infections;
• Developing or expanding ongoing campaigns at national or sub-national levels to promote and improve hand-washing (aka hand hygiene) methods among health care providers;
• Making reliable and validated information available on healthcare-associated infections at community and district levels to foster appropriate actions;
• Sharing experiences and, where appropriate, available surveillance data, with the WHO World Alliance for Patient Safety;
• Consider the use of WHO strategies and guidelines to tackle healthcare-associated infection, in particular in the areas of hand-washing (aka hand hygiene), raise awareness of antibiotic stewardship, and environmental procedure safety.

We will work with health professionals and associations worldwide:
-To promote the highest standards of practice and behavior to reduce the risks of healthcare-associated infection;
-To foster and sustain collaboration with research institutions, training schools, educational centers, universities, healthcare settings, and agencies of other WHO Member States to ensure full utilization of knowledge and experience in the field of healthcare-associated infection.
-To encourage senior management support and role-modeling from key staff to promote the implementation of interventions to reduce healthcare-associated infections.
C Diff Foundation
May 5, 2015

 

For more information about Clean Care is Safer Care, please contact the team at savelives@who.int